CONTENTS




Chapter 1
Introduction
....................................................1
1.1 What are Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants (WRCPs) ..........3
1.2 Significance or Uses of WRCPs .................................5
1.3 Relevance of in situ conservation .........................8
1.4 Genetic erosion ...............................................8
1.5 Genetic resource depletion ....................................9
1.6 Historic concern about genetic resource depletion .............12
1.7 Previous efforts of in situ conservation...................13
1.8 India's Heritage of WRCPs .....................................17
1.9 Distribution of WRCPs amongst phytogeographic zones of India ..17
1.10 Importance of the Western Ghats/Malabar ......................18
1.11 Significance of Uttara Kannada for conservation of WRCPs .....18
1.12 On-going changes in the landscape of UK ......................19
1.13 Need to assess how to conserve the stock of WRCPs ............21
1.14 Motivation for the present study .............................21

Chapter 2
Materials and Methods
.........................................23
2.1 Introduction ..................................................23
2.2 Study area ....................................................23
2.2.1 Setting .....................................................25
2.2.2 Topography ..................................................25
2.2.3 Climate .....................................................26
2.3 Natural vegetation of the study area ..........................26
2.4 Human impact ..................................................27
2.5 Harvests of plant biomass and creation of degradation stages ..27
2.6 Species of interest ...........................................27
2.7 Method of data collection .....................................28
2.8 Vegetation sampling ...........................................28
2.9 Habitat transformation ........................................34

Chapter 3
Selection of sites for in situ conservation - a logical approach
..35
3.1 Introduction ..................................................35
3.2 Data Analysis .................................................36
3.2.1 Testing all possible combinations ...........................36
3.2.2 Testing limited combinations which are more likely
to have optimal solution ........................................37
3.2.3 Pooling similar sites into clusters of site(s) of
manageable number and testing all possible combinations ..........38
3.2.4 Greedy method ...............................................38
3.3 Results .......................................................39
3.3.1 Testing all possible combinations ...........................39
3.3.2 Testing limited combinations which are more likely
to have optimal solution ........................................39
3.3.3 Pooling similar sites into clusters of site(s) of
manageable number and testing all possible combinations ..........44
3.3.4 Greedy method ...............................................51
3.4 Discussion ....................................................51


Chapter 4
Abundance, quality of habitat and habitat preference
..........64
4.1 Introduction ..................................................64
4.2 Materials and Methods .........................................64
4.3 Data analysis .................................................65
4.3.1 Frequency of occurrence, abundance and habitat preference ...65
4.3.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference ...................65
4.3.3 Species Association/Classification ..........................66
4.4 Results .......................................................66
4.4.1 Abundance and habitat preference ............................66
4.4.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference ...................83
4.4.3 Species Association/Classification ..........................83
4.5 Discussion ....................................................83

Chapter 5
Association amongst WRCPs and their in situ conservation
..........247
5.1 Introduction .................................................247
5.2 Data Analysis .................................................247
5.2.1 Classification/association of WRCPs .........................247
5.2.2 Characterisation of quadrats (habitats) of species-clusters .247
5.2.3 Ordination ..................................................250
5.3 Results .......................................................250
5.3.1 Association of 50 WRCPs among themselves ....................250
5.3.2 Characterisation of quadrats (habitats) of species-clusters .252
5.3.3 Ordination ..................................................254
5.4 Discussion ....................................................254
5.5 Multi-species, multi-location, multi-habitat approach .........256

Chapter 6
The Landscape of Uttara Kannada
...............................260
6.1 Introduction ..................................................260
6.2 Data Analysis .................................................262
6.2.1 Classification of sites (habitats) ..........................262
6.2.2 Characterisation of clusters of sites (habitats) ............263
6.2.3 Logical approach ............................................263
6.2.4 Habitat transformation ......................................263
6.3 Results .......................................................263
6.3.1 Classification of sites (habitats) ..........................263
6.3.2 Characterisation of clusters of sites (habitats) ............270
6.3.3 Logical approach ............................................270
6.3.4 Habitat transformation ......................................270
6.4 Discussion ....................................................272
6.5 Correspondence between species-clusters and site-clusters .....275

Chapter 7
Myristica swamps - a habitat approach
.................276
7.1 Introduction .................................................276
7.2 Data Analysis ................................................278
7.2.1 Habitat Classification .....................................278
7.2.2 Vegetation Composition .....................................278
7.2.3 Species Association/Classification .........................279
7.2.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ....................................279
7.3 Results ......................................................279
7.3.1 Habitat Classification .....................................279
7.3.2 Vegetation Composition .....................................280
7.3.3 Species Association/Classification .........................282
7.3.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ....................................286
7.4 Geographical Distribution ....................................298
7.5 Ecological conditions under which Myristica swamps develop ....301
7.6 Probable areas where Myristica swamps can be expected ...302
7.7 Conservation value or Importance of Myristica swamps ....302
7.8 On-going changes in Myristica swamps (i.e., threats) ....303
7.8.1 Suspected conversions in past ..............................303
7.8.2 Conversions observed during May 1992 onwards ...............306
7.9 Socio-economic factors responsible for such conversions ......307
7.10 Future of the located Myristica swamps ...............308
7.11 Why much emphasis on its in-situ conservation? .......309
7.12 Tips to locate Myristica swamps ........................311
7.13 Possible mechanisms for ensuring conservation ...............312

Chapter 8
Amorphophallus Species - a species-specific approach
.....316
8.1 Introduction .................................................316
8.2 Data analysis ................................................317
8.3 Results ......................................................318
8.3.1 Abundance, spatial distribution and habitat preference .....318
8.3.2 Species associations .......................................322
8.3.3 Probable pollinators and the reproductive ecology ..........325
8.3.4 Number of seeds per fruit ..................................325
8.3.5 Number of offset tubers ....................................327
8.3.6 The seed dispersal agents ..................................329
8.4 Discussion ...................................................329

Chapter 9
Oryza species
.........................................337
9.1 Introduction .................................................337
9.2 Results ......................................................339
9.2.1 Ecological conditions under which wild and weedy
rices are thriving .............................................339
9.2.2 Threats to populations of wild and weedy rices .............346
9.3 General observations and threats .............................349
9.4 Discussion and suggested measures for in situ conservation
of wild and weedy rices .........................................349
9.5 Integrating in situ conservation of wild rices with
conservation of waterbirds and encouragement of ecotourism ......353

Chapter 10
Conclusions
...................................................360

References
....................................................363

Appendices
........................................................372


ECOGEOGRAPHICAL SURVEYING FOR
IN SITU CONSERVATION OF WILD RELATIVES OF
CULTIVATED PLANTS IN UTTARA KANNADA
DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA






A Thesis
Submitted for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in the Faculty of Science





By
SHRI NIWAS SINGH









CENTRE FOR ECOLOGICAL SCIENCES
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
BANGALORE - 560012
JULY 1996








Dedicated
to
the plants and people
of the Western Ghats










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


It is a great pleasure and priviledge to acknowledge the able
guidence of my supervisor Prof. Madhav Gadgil. Special thanks are
due to him for sending me to roam in the forests of Uttara Kannada.
I humbly appreciate Prof. Raghavendra Gadagkar for his sympathetic
attitude towards me and providing generous access to facilities.
Respect automatically goes for Dr. N.V. Joshi, who gave ideas about
right way of looking at the data and interpreting. I appreciate the
uncoditional and generous support of every kind extended to me by
Dr. M.D. Subash Chandran. Special thanks are due to him for the
identification of plant specimens which I used to bring from field.
I would never forget Mr. Manjunath Bangaryya Naik, Vishnu
Mukri, Srikant Gunaga and Sridhar G. Patgar for their help in data
collection and good friendship. Without M.B. Naik's expertise in
trekking, plant identification and knowledge of environs of Uttara
Kannada, I would have not seen and learnt about the plants of
interior areas of Uttara Kannada.
A number of people from Sirsi Field Station like D.M. Bhat,
P.R. Bhat, G.T. Hegde, C.M. Shastri, Deepak Shetty, Rosario, and
Gopal Hegde were helpful in many ways during data collection. I am
forgetting names of a number of other persons who helped me.
However, their faces and acts of favour are filed in the brain and
become alive with a sudden trigger of memory. It is difficult to
forget so many people of Uttara Kannada who 'taught' me 'Kasturi
Kannada'.
Company of T.V. Ramchandra almost throughout the research
period, a number of field visits, and the memorable Aghanashini
trip helped me a lot in learning about computer, plants, people of
Karnataka, and the Kasturi Kannada. Generous and sympathetic
attitude of Geetha and Prema, Prema's generosity in giving
stationary, etc. can never be forgotten. Friendship of Negi, Ghate,
Harini, and Anuradha are memorable. The people of CES as a whole
have provided fairly good and trouble-free work environment.
How can I forget Suma Nidudi Gowda and Satish Kumar Bobba who
introduced me to C programming language? Their coming to CES gave
me the power of C to speed up the data analysis. At this moment I
remember a sentence from a play. "Words do not flow when the heart
is full." I find a lot of people who make world and other's life
better. At this moment, I also remember my brother Ram Niwas Singh
who brought me here. I remember my parents, family members and
other well-wishers for their tolerance of physical distance during
this period.
A number of people from other organisations like NBPGR, IRRI,
BSI, FAO, FI, CTCRI etc. were very much helpful in sharing relevant
literature and experiences. To name them, a few of them are T.V.R.
Nair, Christel Palmberg Lerche, Shri K. Vivekananthan, Shri
Velayudhan, Wilbert Hetterscheid, Dr. Vajravelu, etc. I must not
forget the plants of Uttara Kannada since they are there and I
could go to see them. I will continue to think and work for the
betterment of the delicate relationship of plants and people of the
world in general and that of the Western Ghats and Uttara Kannada
in particular.


List of Tables


2.1 Details of 46 sites where quantitative vegetation
sampling was done .................................................31
2.2 Six sites for which only presence/absence data were collected ....31
3.1 Results of testall.c for initial four and last four
groups of combinations (for 430 x 46 matrix) .......................40
3.1a Maximum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species ...............................40
3.1b Minimum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species ..............................40
3.1c Average number of species that would be expected to be saved
if all possible combinations of sites are considered ...............40
3.2 Results of testing limited combinations which are more likely
to have optimal solution (for 430 x 46 matrix) .....................41
3.2a Maximum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species ...............................41
3.2b Minimum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species ...............................42
3.2c Average number of species being saved if all possible
(or tested) combinations are considered ............................43
3.3 Results of testing all possible combinations in each group
for 430 x 14 matrix using testall.c ................................45
3.3a Maximum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species .............................45
3.3b Minimum number of species being saved and the combinations of
sites giving those number of species .............................45
3.3c Average number of species that would be expected to be saved
if all possible combinations are considered .......................46
3.4 Percentage of species being saved and trend in beta diversity
(for 430 x 46 matrix) ..............................................46
3.5 Percentage of species being saved and trend in beta diversity
(for 430 x 14 matrix) ..............................................47
3.6 Number of species listed from 46 sites ...........................48
3.7 Results of GREEDY.FOR - greedy method (for 50 x 46 matrix) .......49
3.7a Maximum number of species being saved and the combinations
of sites giving those number of species (for 50 x 46 matrix) .......49
3.8 Results of greedy method (GREEDY.FOR) for 430 x 46 matrix ........50
3.9 Results of greedy method (GREEDY.FOR) for 430 x 14 matrix ........51
4.1 Abundance (per quarter hectare) of plants >=2cm dbh at 46 sites ..67
4.2 Abundance (per 50 or 100 sq m) of plants <2cm dbh at 46 sites ....73
4.3 Abundance (per quarter hectare) of dependent plant species
at 46 sites .......................................................80
4.4 The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for 50 WRCPs ..............85
5.1 Fifty WRCPs from 46 sites showing co-occurrence of WRCPs
in different habitats .............................................248
5.2 Mean and standard deviation values of 11 community
parameters for 10 WRCP-clusters (Figure 5.1) ......................251
5.3 Results of ordination - rearranging table 5.1 by
reciprocal averaging ..............................................255
6.1 Mean and standard deviation values of 11 community parameters
for 12 site-clusters (Figure 6.1) .................................265
6.2 The presence/absence matrix of 50 WRCPs form 12 site-clusters ...266
6.3 Ongoing habitat changes in Uttara Kannada .......................267
6.4 Results of testing all possible combinations
for 50x12 matrix (table 6.2) ......................................271
7.1 Geographical distribution of Myristica fatua ....................299
7.2 Geographical distribution of Gymnacranthera canarica ............300
7.3 Usefulness of some plants of Myristica swamps ...................304
7.4 Distribution of plants found in and around Myristica swamps .....305
8.1 Abundance of Amorphophallus species in various habitats .........319
8.2 Testing goodness of fit for Poisson and Negative
Binomial distributions ..........................................320
8.3 Frequency distribution of number of seeds/fruit in
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, A. bulbifer, and A. commutatus ......326
8.4 List of species which co-occurred with Amorphophallus species ...326
9.1 Details of dates of collection, locality about wild and
weedy rices .....................................................340


List of Figures


2.1 A rough sketch of the study area - Uttara Kannada and
adjacent part of Shimoga district, Karnataka .......................24
2.2 Sketch of belt transect method used in vegetation sampling .......29
3.0 Species-area curves based on tables 3.1a, 3.1b, and 3.1c .........52
3.1 Species-area relationship based on results of testing
limited combinations which are more likely to have optimal
solution .........................................................54
3.2 Species-area relationship based on table 3.3a, 3.3b and 3.3c .....54
3.3 Classification of 46 sites into 14 clusters of site(s) ...........55
3.4 Trend in behaviour of beta diversity based on 430 x 46 matrix ....56
3.5 Trend in behaviour of beta diversity based on 430 x 14 matrix ....56
4.1 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association
of Ipomoea pes-caprae .............................................87
4.2 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Musa sp w. .........................................................91
4.3 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Colocasia sp. .....................................................94
4.4 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Curcuma neilgherrensis. ............................................97
4.5 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Dioscorea sp bl. ..................................................101
4.7 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Dioscorea sp sl. ..................................................104
4.8 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Dioscorea pentaphylla. ............................................108
4.9 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Acacia catechu. ...................................................111
4.10 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Crotalaria prostrata. .............................................115
4.11 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Zizyphus oenoplia. ...............................................118
4.12 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Carissa carandas. .................................................122
4.13 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Syzygium caryophyllatum. ..........................................126
4.14 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Vigna sp. .........................................................129
4.15 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Curcuma sp. ......................................................133
4.16 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Crotalaria sp. ....................................................136
4.17 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Piper nigrum. .....................................................140
4.18 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Dioscorea sp. ...................................................144
4.19 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Syzygium laetum. ..................................................147
4.20 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Syzygium cumini. ..................................................151
4.21 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Jasminum sp. ......................................................155
4.22 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Ipomoea sp. .......................................................158
4.23 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Murraya koenigii. .................................................162
4.24 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Ziziphus rugosa. ..................................................166
4.25 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Bambusa arundinacea. ..............................................170
4.26 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Emblica officinalis. ..............................................174
4.27 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Citrus sp. ........................................................177
4.28 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Mangifera indica. .................................................181
4.29 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Garcinia indica. ..................................................184
4.30 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Sapindus laurifolius. .............................................188
4.31 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Artocarpus hirsutus. ..............................................192
4.32 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Cinnamomum verum. .................................................196
4.33 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Piper sp nl. ......................................................199
4.34 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Garcinia gummi-gutta. .............................................203
4.35 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Garcinia talbotii. ................................................206
4.36 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Garcinia morella. .................................................209
4.37 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Knema attenuata. .................................................213
4.38 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Piper sp bl. ......................................................216
4.39 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Piper sp. .........................................................219
4.40 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Piper sp tssl. ....................................................222
4.41 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Zingiber sp. ......................................................226
4.42 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Syzygium hemisphericum. ...........................................229
4.43 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Myristica dactyloides. ............................................233
4.44 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Cinnamomum malabathrum. ...........................................236
4.45 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Syzygium gardneri. ................................................240
4.46 (a-f) habitat preference and (g) species association of
Myristica malabarica. ...........................................243
5.1 Classification of 50 WRCPs into ten species-clusters ............249
6.1 Classification of 46 sites into 13 site-clusters ................264
7.1 The result of habitat classification ............................281
7.2 A complete linkage dendrogram showing associates of
Gymnacranthera canarica ..........................................284
7.3 A complete linkage dendrogram showing associates of
Myristica fatua ...................................................285
7.4 A complete linkage dendrogram showing associates of
Pinanga dicksonii .................................................287
7.5 A complete linkage dendrogram showing associates of
Piper hookeri ....................................................288
7.6 (a-f) Preferred habitat of Gymnacranthera canarica ..............290
7.7 (a-f) Preferred habitat of Myristica fatua ......................292
7.8 (a-f) Preferred habitat of Pinanga dicksonii ....................295
7.9 (a-f) Preferred habitat of Piper hookeri ........................297
7.10 Encroachment in Myristica swamp ................................310
7.11 An epiphytic specialist fern on its microhabitat
(inverted U or V shaped roots of Gymnacranthera canarica ..........310
8.1 A dendrogram showing level of species association .................323
8.2 (a-f) Habitat preference of Amorphophallus species ................324
8.3a, b, c put together. (a = Amorphophallus paeoniifolius,
b = A. bulbifer, c = A. commutatus) ..............................328
9.1 A farmer weeding out weedy paddy from his paddy field .............345
9.2 Dumping of weeded out weedy paddy to burn it later ..............345
9.3 Filling of a lowlying area for Areca-coconut plantation .........350
9.4 A recently constructed freshwater aquaculture in
eastern Uttar Pradesh: wipe-out of Oryza nivara ...................350
9.5 A pond near own paddy field where Oryza nivara is waiting
its local extinction ..............................................356



List of Appendices


2.1 A field collection form for wild rice and its weedy races .........372
3.1 Presence/absence matrix of 430 species listed from 46 sites .......373
3.2 Presence/absence matrix of 430 species distributed
over 14 clusters of site(s) .......................................381
3.3 testall.c - a computer program to test all possible combinations ..389
3.4 gencomb.c - a computer program to generate combinations ...........392
3.5 testlim.c - a program similar to testall.c but it needs
separate file containing combinations to be tested ...............393
3.6 Presence/absence matrix of 50 WRCPs from 46 sites ...............395
3.7 GREEDY.FOR - a program using greedy method ......................396


17.4.97/sns/Contents of my thesis.