CONTENTS



Chapter 1
Introduction
....................................................1
1.1 What are Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants (WRCPs) ..........3
1.2 Significance or Uses of WRCPs .................................5
1.3 Relevance of in situ conservation .........................8
1.4 Genetic erosion ...............................................8
1.5 Genetic resource depletion ....................................9
1.6 Historic concern about genetic resource depletion .............12
1.7 Previous efforts of in situ conservation...................13
1.8 India's Heritage of WRCPs .....................................17
1.9 Distribution of WRCPs amongst phytogeographic zones of India ..17
1.10 Importance of the Western Ghats/Malabar ......................18
1.11 Significance of Uttara Kannada for conservation of WRCPs .....18
1.12 On-going changes in the landscape of UK ......................19
1.13 Need to assess how to conserve the stock of WRCPs ............21
1.14 Motivation for the present study .............................21

Chapter 2
Materials and Methods
.........................................23
2.1 Introduction ..................................................23
2.2 Study area ....................................................23
2.2.1 Setting .....................................................25
2.2.2 Topography ..................................................25
2.2.3 Climate .....................................................26
2.3 Natural vegetation of the study area ..........................26
2.4 Human impact ..................................................27
2.5 Harvests of plant biomass and creation of degradation stages ..27
2.6 Species of interest ...........................................27
2.7 Method of data collection .....................................28
2.8 Vegetation sampling ...........................................28
2.9 Habitat transformation ........................................34

Chapter 3
Selection of sites for in situ conservation - a logical approach
..35
3.1 Introduction ..................................................35
3.2 Data Analysis .................................................36
3.2.1 Testing all possible combinations ...........................36
3.2.2 Testing limited combinations which are more likely
to have optimal solution ........................................37
3.2.3 Pooling similar sites into clusters of site(s) of
manageable number and testing all possible combinations ..........38
3.2.4 Greedy method ...............................................38
3.3 Results .......................................................39
3.3.1 Testing all possible combinations ...........................39
3.3.2 Testing limited combinations which are more likely
to have optimal solution ........................................39
3.3.3 Pooling similar sites into clusters of site(s) of
manageable number and testing all possible combinations ..........44
3.3.4 Greedy method ...............................................51
3.4 Discussion ....................................................51


Chapter 4
Abundance, quality of habitat and habitat preference
..........64
4.1 Introduction ..................................................64
4.2 Materials and Methods .........................................64
4.3 Data analysis .................................................65
4.3.1 Frequency of occurrence, abundance and habitat preference ...65
4.3.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference ...................65
4.3.3 Species Association/Classification ..........................66
4.4 Results .......................................................66
4.4.1 Abundance and habitat preference ............................66
4.4.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference ...................83
4.4.3 Species Association/Classification ..........................83
4.5 Discussion ....................................................83

Chapter 5
Association amongst WRCPs and their in situ conservation
..........247
5.1 Introduction .................................................247
5.2 Data Analysis .................................................247
5.2.1 Classification/association of WRCPs .........................247
5.2.2 Characterisation of quadrats (habitats) of species-clusters .247
5.2.3 Ordination ..................................................250
5.3 Results .......................................................250
5.3.1 Association of 50 WRCPs among themselves ....................250
5.3.2 Characterisation of quadrats (habitats) of species-clusters .252
5.3.3 Ordination ..................................................254
5.4 Discussion ....................................................254
5.5 Multi-species, multi-location, multi-habitat approach .........256

Chapter 6
The Landscape of Uttara Kannada
...............................260
6.1 Introduction ..................................................260
6.2 Data Analysis .................................................262
6.2.1 Classification of sites (habitats) ..........................262
6.2.2 Characterisation of clusters of sites (habitats) ............263
6.2.3 Logical approach ............................................263
6.2.4 Habitat transformation ......................................263
6.3 Results .......................................................263
6.3.1 Classification of sites (habitats) ..........................263
6.3.2 Characterisation of clusters of sites (habitats) ............270
6.3.3 Logical approach ............................................270
6.3.4 Habitat transformation ......................................270
6.4 Discussion ....................................................272
6.5 Correspondence between species-clusters and site-clusters .....275

Chapter 7
Myristica swamps - a habitat approach
.................276
7.1 Introduction .................................................276
7.2 Data Analysis ................................................278
7.2.1 Habitat Classification .....................................278
7.2.2 Vegetation Composition .....................................278
7.2.3 Species Association/Classification .........................279
7.2.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ....................................279
7.3 Results ......................................................279
7.3.1 Habitat Classification .....................................279
7.3.2 Vegetation Composition .....................................280
7.3.3 Species Association/Classification .........................282
7.3.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ....................................286
7.4 Geographical Distribution ....................................298
7.5 Ecological conditions under which Myristica swamps develop ....301
7.6 Probable areas where Myristica swamps can be expected ...302
7.7 Conservation value or Importance of Myristica swamps ....302
7.8 On-going changes in Myristica swamps (i.e., threats) ....303
7.8.1 Suspected conversions in past ..............................303
7.8.2 Conversions observed during May 1992 onwards ...............306
7.9 Socio-economic factors responsible for such conversions ......307
7.10 Future of the located Myristica swamps ...............308
7.11 Why much emphasis on its in-situ conservation? .......309
7.12 Tips to locate Myristica swamps ........................311
7.13 Possible mechanisms for ensuring conservation ...............312

Chapter 8
Amorphophallus Species - a species-specific approach
.....316
8.1 Introduction .................................................316
8.2 Data analysis ................................................317
8.3 Results ......................................................318
8.3.1 Abundance, spatial distribution and habitat preference .....318
8.3.2 Species associations .......................................322
8.3.3 Probable pollinators and the reproductive ecology ..........325
8.3.4 Number of seeds per fruit ..................................325
8.3.5 Number of offset tubers ....................................327
8.3.6 The seed dispersal agents ..................................329
8.4 Discussion ...................................................329

Chapter 9
Oryza species
.........................................337
9.1 Introduction .................................................337
9.2 Results ......................................................339
9.2.1 Ecological conditions under which wild and weedy
rices are thriving .............................................339
9.2.2 Threats to populations of wild and weedy rices .............346
9.3 General observations and threats .............................349
9.4 Discussion and suggested measures for in situ conservation
of wild and weedy rices .........................................349
9.5 Integrating in situ conservation of wild rices with
conservation of waterbirds and encouragement of ecotourism ......353

Chapter 10
Conclusions
...................................................360

References
....................................................363

Appendices ........................................................372


17.4.97/sns/Contents of my thesis.