Chapter 4
Abundance, quality of habitat and habitat
preference

4.1 Introduction


If we have only presence/absence data (as given in Appendix 3.1)
then we can go for a logical approach to maximize the number of
species being saved as discussed in chapter 3. However, since more
effort has been put to collect more data (like abundance etc.) which
give more information about the species under consideration, we can
base our conservation measures on more rigorous criteria. This chapter
deals with the abundance, frequency of occurrence, habitat preference
and species association of 50 WRCPs. Such information would be helpful
in devising in situ conservation measures for these species.
4.2 Materials and Methods
The methodology of data collection has already been stated in
chapter 2. From the data-set obtained by using the stated method of
data collection, it is possible to get the frequency of occurrence and
abundance of different species in various habitat types. For the sake
of efficiency and convenience, the data were collected separately for
plants >=2cm dbh, <2cm dbh and the dependent plant species. Therefore,
the density of these plant groups will be computed separately. From
the frequency of occurrence and abundance, it is possible to find out
the order of habitat preference for each species by sorting in
decreasing order along with the respective habitats. In addition, the
2300 sampled quadrats were also characterized on the six parameters as
mentioned in chapter 2. Based on these parameters also it is possible
to arrive at the preferred habitats of different plant species.
4.3 Data analysis
4.3.1 Frequency of occurrence, abundance and habitat preference
The frequency of occurrence was computed by counting the number
of quadrats in which a particular species was encountered at each
sampling site. The abundance of different plant species (for plants
>=2cm dbh and dependent plant species) per quarter hectare was
computed by counting the number of individuals encountered in 50
quadrats of 5m x 10m at each of the 46 sampled sites. Similarly the
abundance (per 50 sq. meters) of plants <2cm dbh was computed by
summing the number of individuals of each species encountered in 50
subquadrats of 1m x 1m. At initial nine sites the size of the
subquadrats for sampling plants <2cm dbh was two sq. meters (2m x 1m).
Therefore, the abundance of plants <2cm dbh at these sites is per 100
sq. meters. For selected 50 WRCPs the frequency of occurrence of each
species from 46 sites was sorted in decreasing order to get the order
of habitat preference.
4.3.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference
All the 2300 quadrats (and subquadrats as the case may be) were
characterized on the six parameters as given in chapter 2. A
nonparametric test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) was done to test whether
the distribution of quadrats having a particular species under
consideration is significantly different from the distribution of the
total 2300 quadrats with respect to these parameters. The frequency
distributions of the values of six parameters from quadrats having the
particular WRCP and all the 2300 quadrats were made. Bar graphs from
these frequency distributions were made to check visually the overall
differences in the two distributions. This was done for the 50 WRCPs
that are being discussed in detail. These 50 WRCPs from 46 sites were
also arranged (Table 5.3), using an ordination technique, in a
gradient of successional stages of the plant communities to which they
belong. Therefore, the details of different species are discussed in
arranged order.
4.3.3 Species Association/Classification
Co-occurring species of the chosen 50 WRCPs were classified
separately along with these WRCPs taken as focal species. Therefore,
only those quadrats were taken in which the focal species was present
and a presence/absence matrix was prepared for a list of unique
species present in these quadrats. The Jaccard index of similarity was
computed between focal species and rest of the species depending on
their distribution in the selected quadrats. Only those species were
retained which had a Jaccard index value of >=0.05. If the number of
species was more than 50 even after putting the above cutoff then only
50 species, which co-occurred more with focal species, were retained.
These species were classified by complete linkage clustering. Again,
Jaccard index was used as a measure of similarity between all pairs of
retained species in classifying them.
4.4 Results
4.4.1 Abundance and habitat preference
The abundance (per quarter hectare) of plants >=2cm dbh and
dependent plant species at 46 sampled sites is given in table 4.1 and
4.3 respectively. Similarly the abundance (per 50 sq. meters) of
plants <2cm dbh at 46 sampled sites is given in table 4.2. In table
4.2 the density at first nine sites is per 100 sq. meters. The order
of habitat preference for 50 WRCPs based on frequency of occurrence is
given in tabular form along with description for each WRCP (see the
discussion).
Table 4.1 Abundance (per quarter hectare) of plants >=2 cm dbh at 46 sites.
Sites
SN Plants >=2 cm dbh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
1 Acacia auriculiformis 0 0 0 0 0 10 630 0 363 55 9 0 0 0
0 383 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 178 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 Acacia catechu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 Acacia senegal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 Acacia sinuata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
5 Acronychia pedunculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 Actinodaphne malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 4
3 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 Actinodaphne sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 Actinorhytis calapparia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 Aglaia elaeagnoidea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 0 30
12 0 0 5 0 23 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 Aglaia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 Aglaia sp bl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 Aglaia sp scb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 16 0 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 Aglaia talbotii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
14 Ailanthus triphysa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15 Alangium lamarkii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 Albizia lebbeck 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 Albizia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
18 Alseodaphne semecarpifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
19 Alstonia scholaris 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
20 Anacardium occidentale 0 0 0 0 0 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 49 0 0 0 0
21 Ancistrocladus heyneanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 Anthocephalus chinensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
23 Antiaris toxicaria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 Aporosa lindleyana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 1 0 0 4
10 1 0 0 0 1 1 12 14 6 21 26 0 27 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
25 Ardisia humilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 Ardisia solanacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 Areca catechu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 588 631 0 631 683 0 0
28 Arenga wightii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
29 Artocarpus heterophyllus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
30 Artocarpus hirsutus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
6 0 0 0 0 4 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
31 Artocarpus lakoocha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
32 Bambusa arundinacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 22 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 0
33 Barringtonia acutangula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0
34 Bauhinia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
35 Beilschmiedia dalzelli 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 2 6 0 7 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36 Bombax ceiba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
37 Breynia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
38 Bridelia retusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
39 Bridelia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
40 Buchanania lanzan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 1 0 33 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
41 Caesalpinia nuga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
42 Caesalpinia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
43 Calamus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 Calliarpa arborea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
45 Calophyllum apetalum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
13 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
46 Calophyllum polyanthum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0
1 0 0 11 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
47 Calycopteris floribunda 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 16 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 3 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
48 Canthium amarum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
49 Canthium dicoccum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 Canthium parviflorum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5
2 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
51 Canthium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
52 Carallia brachiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
53 Careya arborea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 21 0 7 1 3 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
54 Carissa carandas 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
55 Caryota urens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 2 2 0 3 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1
56 Casearia ovata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
57 Casearia tomentosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 3 0 3
0 0 1 4 0 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
58 Cassia fistula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
59 Cassine paniculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
60 Casuarina equisetifolia 0 0 0 0 0 589 0 620 84 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
61 Celtis trinervia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
62 Chinosanthes malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
63 Chrysophyllum acuminatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
64 Chukrasia tabularis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
65 Cinnamomum malabathrum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
2 0 0 5 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
66 Cinnamomum nitidum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
67 Cinnamomum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
68 Cinnamomum verum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
3 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
69 Citrus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
70 Cleidion spiciflorum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
71 Cocos nucifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0
72 Coffea arabica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
73 Connarus wightii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
74 Cordia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
75 Croton sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
76 Curcuma sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
77 Cyathea gigantea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
78 Dalbergia sisso 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4
79 Dalbergia sympathetica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
80 Dichapetalum gelonioides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 0 9
5 0 2 9 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
81 Dillenia pentagyna 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 1 0 0
2 1 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 8 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
82 Dimocarpus longan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 20
0 0 9 9 0 21 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
83 Diospyros buxifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0
16 0 0 6 0 1 0 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
84 Diospyros candolleana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 16 0 22
44 2 1 5 0 44 0 43 4 0 8 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
85 Diospyros malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
86 Diospyros melanoxylon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
87 Diospyros montana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 15
88 Diospyros oocarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 18 0 1
4 0 0 11 0 6 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
89 Diospyros pruriens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
90 Diospyros sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
91 Diospyros sp rblb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
92 Dipterocarpus indicus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 12 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
93 Drypetes confertiflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
94 Dysoxylum malabaricum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
95 Ehretia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
96 Elaeocarpus serratus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 40
0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
97 Elaeocarpus tuberculatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
98 Embellia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
99 Emblica officinalis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 Ervattamia heyneana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 17 3 0 0 1
2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 3 7 14 10 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 7
101 Eucalyptus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 10 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 65 0 0 0 72
102 Eugenia macrosepala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 29
0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
103 Ficus arnottiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
104 Ficus drupacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
105 Ficus exasperata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
106 Ficus nervosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
107 Ficus racemosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0
108 Ficus religiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
109 Ficus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
110 Ficus sp bl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
111 Flacourtia indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
112 Flacourtia montana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 8
3 1 0 0 0 1 1 6 9 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
113 Flacourtia sepiaria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
114 Flacourtia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
115 Garcinia gummi-gutta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 0 7
41 0 3 3 0 4 0 24 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
116 Garcinia indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
117 Garcinia morella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 2
8 0 0 2 0 12 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
118 Garcinia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
119 Garcinia talbotii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5
0 0 0 8 0 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
120 Gardenia resinifera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
121 Glochidion sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 1
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
122 Glyricidia sepium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
123 Gmelina arborea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
124 Gnetum ula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
125 Grewia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
126 Grewia tiliaefolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 2
127 Gymnacranthera canarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
128 Haldinia cordifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
129 Heterophragma quadrilocular 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
130 Hippocratea sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
131 Holigarna arnottiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3
13 1 2 1 0 11 0 25 3 2 0 22 0 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
132 Holigarna grahamii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
1 0 10 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
133 Holigarna sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
134 Hopea parviflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
135 Hopea ponga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 101 0 29
27 11 45 42 0 16 0 126 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
136 Hugonia mystax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
137 Hydnocarpus pentandra 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 7 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
138 Ixora brachiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 45 0 36
22 0 0 0 0 8 0 18 21 0 4 58 0 4 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
139 Ixora coccinea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
140 Ixora sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 8
5 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
141 Jasminum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
142 Knema attenuata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 216 0 62
40 0 1 62 0 28 0 16 1 0 0 2 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
143 Lagerstroemia lanceolata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
144 Lagerstroemia parviflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
145 Lagerstroemia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
146 Lagerstroemia speciosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 0
147 Lannea coromandelica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
148 Lauraceae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
149 Leea indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 0 0 0 16
7 0 2 0 0 25 0 3 1 0 0 8 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 31 5
150 Litsea stocksii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
151 Lophopetalum wightianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
3 1 10 1 0 0 0 22 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
152 Luvunga sarmentosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
153 Macranga peltata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
154 Madhuca indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
155 Madhuca nerifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
156 Mallotus philippensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
157 Mallotus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
158 Mammea longifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 25 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
159 Mangifera indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 3 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
160 Mastixia arborea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 59 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
161 Memecylon randeriana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
162 Memecylon sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 21
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
163 Memecylon sp sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
164 Memecylon talbotianum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
165 Memecylon umbellatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 0 0 0 0 46
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
166 Memecylon wightii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
167 Meytenus rothiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
168 Microcos paniculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
169 Mimusops elengii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1
6 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 4 0 0 0 1 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
170 Mitragyna parviflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
171 Murraya koenigii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
172 Murraya paniculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
173 Musa paradisiaca 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 12 0 39 14 0 0
174 Musa sp w 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 52 0 0 0 0 0
175 Myristica dactyloides 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 1
18 0 0 7 0 3 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
176 Myristica fatua 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
177 Myristica fragrans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0
178 Myristica malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1
5 0 1 1 0 4 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
179 Neolitsea scorbiculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 0 9
0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
180 Neolitsea zeylanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
181 Nothopegia colebrookiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 0 19
11 0 1 14 0 11 0 9 12 0 1 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 9
182 Nothopodytes foetida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
183 Ochlandra sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
184 Olea dioica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 21 0 39
25 1 5 3 0 18 0 19 25 0 8 12 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
185 Pandanus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
186 Paramignya monophylla 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
187 Pavetta indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
188 Peltophorum ferruginum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
189 Persea macrantha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4
3 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
190 Pinanga dicksonii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 527 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
191 Polyalthia fragrans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
192 Polyalthia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
193 Pongamia pinnata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
194 Premna coriacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
195 Psidium guajava 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
196 Psychotria dalzellii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 4 0 1 15 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
197 Psychotria flavida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 13
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
198 Psychotria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
199 Pterocarpus marsupium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
200 Pterospermum heyneanum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 3 0 6
2 0 0 5 0 10 0 2 0 2 9 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
201 Reissantia grahami 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
202 Sageraea dalzellii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 10 0 0
0 0 0 8 0 9 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
203 Santalum album 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
204 Sapindus emarginatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
205 Sapindus laurifolius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
23 5 0 0 0 15 0 5 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
206 Sapium insigne 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 19 1 0 0 32 0 0 0 0
207 Saraca indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
208 Schleichera oleosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 102 3 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 5 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 6 3
209 Semecarpus anacardium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
210 Sterculia gutata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
211 Stereospermum personatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
212 Strobilanthes sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 19 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55
213 Strombosia ceylanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 21 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
214 Strychnos nux-vomica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 18 0 0 7 3
215 Syzygium caryophyllatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
216 Syzygium cumini 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 29 0 2 0 7
1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 8 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
217 Syzygium gardneri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 11 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
218 Syzygium hemisphericum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
3 0 15 0 0 9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
219 Syzygium laetum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
220 Syzygium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
221 Syzygium zeylanicum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
222 Tectona grandis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 198 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 167 0 0 0 0 20 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
223 Terminalia arjuna 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
224 Terminalia bellirica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
225 Terminalia chebula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
226 Terminalia crenulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
1 6 0 0 2 0 22 3 13 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
227 Terminalia paniculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 13 1 0 0
9 3 0 0 35 0 18 4 7 36 20 12 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 4
228 Tetrameles nudiflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
229 Theobroma cacao 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 3 0 0 0 0 0
230 Torrenia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
231 Trewia polycarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
232 Vateria indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0
0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
233 Vitex altissima 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 3
1 3 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
234 Vitex negundo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
235 Walsura trifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
236 Xantolis tomentosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
6 2 0 0 0 1 0 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
237 Xeromphis spinosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 33 3 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 11 0 0 15 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 10 7
238 Xeromphis uliginosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
239 Xylia xylocarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 52 2 0 17 10 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7
240 Zanthoxylum ovalifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
241 Zanthoxylum rhetsa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
242 Ziziphus mauritiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
243 Ziziphus oenoplia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
244 Ziziphus rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2

Table 4.2 Abundance (per 50 or 100 sq. m) of plants <2 cm dbh at 46 sites.
Sites
SN Plants <2 cm dbh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
1 Abrus precatorius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 Acacia auriculiformis 0 0 0 0 31 4 553 0 1 3 0 0 0 0
0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
3 Acacia catechu 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 Acacia senegal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 Acacia sinuata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
6 Acalypha sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 Acanthus sp 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 1
4 48 42 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 15 0 0 94 23 111 43 81
8 Achyranthes aspera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
9 Acronychia pedunculata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 Actinodaphne malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
1 0 0 0 0 4 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 Ageratum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 443 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 Aglaia elaeagnoidea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 14
0 0 8 1 0 31 0 3 0 4 12 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 Aglaia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
14 Aglaia sp scb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 17 0 133 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
15 Aglaia talbotii 0 0 0 1 20 29 3 0 78 0 0 0 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 137 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 Ailanthus triphysa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 Albizia lebbeck 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
18 Alpinia galanga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 Alseodaphne semecarpifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 Alstonia scholaris 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
21 Amomum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 Amorphophallus bulbifer 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 0 0
23 Amorphophallus sp 4 29 0 40 22 13 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 54 0 1 0 4 6 1 0 0
24 Anacardium occidentale 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0
25 Ancistrocladus heyneanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 Annona squamosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
27 Anotis sp 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Apama siliquosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
29 Aporosa lindleyana 1 2 0 0 8 0 0 0 13 12 1 0 0 1
1 3 0 0 0 0 2 5 10 5 13 5 0 3 18 0 0 6 0 0 2 3
30 Ardisia humilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
31 Areca catechu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 0 4 4 0 0
32 Arenga wightii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
33 Arisaema sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 Artocarpus hirsutus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
35 Artocarpus lakoocha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36 Asparagus racemosus 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
37 Bambusa arundinacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 Barringtonia acutangula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
39 Beilschmiedia dalzelli 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 Biophytum sensitivum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
41 Borreria hispida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 557 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
42 Borreria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
43 Bosenbergia pulcherima 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 Breynia sp 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 5 0 0 1 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
45 Bridelia retusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
46 Bridelia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
47 Bridelia sp cl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
48 Buchanania lanzan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
49 Caesalpinia nuga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
50 Calamus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
0 0 16 17 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
51 Calophyllum apetalum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 1 2 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
52 Calophyllum inophyllum 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
53 Calophyllum polyanthum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3
0 1 1 3 0 16 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
54 Calycopteris floribunda 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 6 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 7 0 0 29 0 0 0 0
55 Canthium dicoccum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
56 Canthium parviflorum 9 7 0 1 2 0 23 1 0 0 0 4 0 9
15 3 0 5 0 5 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
57 Capparis sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
58 Capsicum sp w 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
59 Carallia brachiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
60 Careya arborea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
61 Carissa carandas 0 0 0 0 7 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
62 Caryota urens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 0 8
12 2 8 3 0 12 0 4 3 0 2 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 2 0 0
63 Casearia ovata 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
64 Casearia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
65 Casearia tomentosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
66 Cassia tora 0 12 0 2 105 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 22 0 0 0 0
67 Casuarina equisetifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
68 Centella asiatica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 35 0 0
69 Chinosanthes malabarica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 8
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
70 Cinnamomum malabathrum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 12 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
71 Cinnamomum nitidum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
72 Cinnamomum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
73 Cinnamomum verum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
74 Cissus elongata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
249 Piper sp tssl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
250 Polyalthia fragrans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
251 Polyalthia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
252 Pongamia pinnata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120 0
253 Pothos scandens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16
2 0 20 4 0 4 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
254 Premna coriacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
255 Psychotria dalzellii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 5 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 7 0 0 5 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
256 Psychotria flavida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 137 0 61
88 1 2 0 0 2 0 113 1 0 10 164 0 0 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
257 Pterocarpus marsupium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
258 Pterospermum heyneanum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
259 Rauwolfia serpentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
260 Rauwolfia tetraphylla 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
261 Reissantia grahami 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
262 Remirea maritima 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
263 Sageraea dalzellii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
264 Sapindus laurifolius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
265 Sapium insigne 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
266 Saute kai 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
267 Schleichera oleosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 18 0
268 Securinega leucopyrus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
269 Securinega microcarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
270 Semecarpus anacardium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
271 Sida rhombifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
272 Sida sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 0 0 2
0 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 12 0 0 0 27 0 0 0 64
273 Smilax sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 6 0 0 0 27
5 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
274 Smilax zeylanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
275 Solanum anguivi 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
276 Solanum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
277 Spinifex littoreus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 135 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
278 Stephania japonica 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
279 Sterculia gutata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
280 Stereospermum personatum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
281 Strobilanthes sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2
60 7 0 0 0 19 41 69 163 390 369 231 0 0 86 0 0 0 0 0 20 72
282 Strombosia ceylanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 7 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
283 Strychnos colubrina 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
284 Strychnos nux-vomica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
285 Swietenia mahagoni 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
286 Syzygium caryophyllatum 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 13 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0
287 Syzygium cumini 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6 5 0 0 0 0
48 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
288 Syzygium gardneri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0
0 0 2 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
289 Syzygium hemisphericum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2
1 2 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
290 Syzygium laetum 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
291 Syzygium lanceolatum 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
292 Syzygium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
293 Syzygium zeylanicum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
294 Tacca pinnatifida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
295 Tectona grandis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
296 Terminalia bellirica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
297 Terminalia crenulata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
298 Terminalia paniculata 0 0 0 0 58 0 1 0 2 2 6 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 6 0 19 0 12 5 2 1 0 7 5 0 0 3 0 0 1 0
299 Tetrameles nudiflora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
300 Theobroma cacao 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
301 Theriophonum dalzellii 0 11 3 0 17 7 5 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 51 0 0 0 41 0 0 0 0
302 Toona ciliata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
303 Torrenia sp 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
304 Trewia polycarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
305 Uvaria narum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 8 25 0 0 8 0 0 0 0
306 Uvaria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
307 Vateria indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
308 Ventilago bombaiensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 8 1 4 0 13 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
309 Vigna sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 10
310 Vitex altissima 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
311 Walsura trifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
312 Waltheria indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
313 Xantolis tomentosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
314 Xeromphis sp 0 0 0 0 3 2 10 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
315 Xeromphis spinosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 62 38 0 0 5
0 3 0 0 0 0 50 0 5 5 0 1 0 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 12 5
316 Xeromphis uliginosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
317 Xylia xylocarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 3 11 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
318 Zanthoxylum rhetsa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
319 Zingiber sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 16
320 Ziziphus mauritiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
321 Ziziphus oenoplia 1 0 0 1 5 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0
322 Ziziphus rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 2

Table 4.3 Abundance (per quarter hectare) of dependent plant species at 46
sites.
Sites
SN Dependent plant species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
1 Abrus precatorius 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 Acacia senegal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 Acacia sinuata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
4 Aeridis sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0
5 Alangium lamarkii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 Ancistrocladus heyneanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 Aristolochia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 Asclepiadaceae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 Asparagus racemosus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 Bridelia retusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 Bridelia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 Bulbophyllum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 1 6 0 0
13 Caesalpinia nuga 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
14 Caesalpinia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15 Calamus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 Calycopteris floribunda 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 24 43 9 0 0
5 2 0 0 0 1 18 8 5 24 20 34 0 1 5 0 0 6 0 0 19 20
17 Canthium amarum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
18 Canthium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
19 Capparis sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
20 Carissa carandas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
21 Carissa sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 Cassytha filiformis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
23 Cissus elongata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 Cissus sp 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 19 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0
25 Coccinia grandis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 Cocculus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 Connarus wightii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 0 13
2 0 3 38 0 21 0 22 21 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Cryptolepis buchanani 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
29 Curcuma sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 Cyclea peltata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 4 0 0 0 10
0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 18 1 1 0 14 1 0 1 8
31 Dalbergia sympathetica 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
32 Dendrobium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 7 16 3 6 7 0 0
33 Dendrobium sp 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 Dendrobium sp 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
35 Derris heyneana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36 Dioscorea oppositifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
37 Dioscorea pentaphylla 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 36 0 0 9
38 Dioscorea sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14 1 5 0 0 0 0
39 Dioscorea sp bl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 8 8 0 0 0
40 Dioscorea sp sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 9 0 1 3
41 Drynaria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 2 0 5 9 4 2 0 3 7 6 0
42 Elaeagnus latifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
43 Embellia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 Entada pursaetha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
45 Epiphytic fern 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 97 297 0 33 254 0 0
46 Eria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
47 Eupatorium odoratum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
48 Fagraea obovata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
49 Ficus arnottiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 Ficus drupacea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
51 Ficus infectoria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
52 Ficus religiosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
53 Ficus retusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
54 Ficus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
55 Flacourtia sepiaria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
56 Gastrochilus sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
57 Gloriosa superba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
58 Gnetum ula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 49 0 17
34 0 2 27 0 13 0 69 22 0 1 7 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 9
59 Gouania sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
60 Gymnema sylvestre 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 3 66 0 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 0 0 0 3 0 0 62 0
61 Hemidesmus indicus 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 24 2 5 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0
62 Hippocratea grahami 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
63 Hippocratea sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
64 Hoya ovalifolia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
65 Hoya sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
66 Hugonia mystax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
67 Ipomoea sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
68 Ixora brachiata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
69 Jasminum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 2 1 0 13 0 5 39 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
70 Lantana camara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
71 Laportea interrupta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
72 Loranthus sp 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 41 0 6 0 1 6 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 23 0 0 5 1
73 Loranthus sp soft lvd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
74 Loranthus spp. very small l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
75 Luisia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 0 0
76 Lygodium sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
77 Melothria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
78 Modecca palmata 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
79 Oberonia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
80 Paramignya monophylla 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 9 0 2
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
81 Piper betle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 21 0 36 13 0 0
82 Piper betle kb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
83 Piper hookeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 189 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
84 Piper nigrum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
2 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 118 106 0 137 102 0 0
85 Piper nigrum nl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
86 Piper sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 0 143
70 1 7 19 0 35 0 27 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
87 Piper sp bl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 1 0 18 0 57 1 0 3 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
88 Piper sp nl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
1 0 0 0 0 7 0 9 4 0 2 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
89 Piper sp nl strong 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
90 Piper sp nlts 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
91 Piper sp sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
92 Piper sp ts 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
93 Piper sp tssl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 4 0 5 4 3 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
94 Piper sp tstl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
95 Porpax jerdoniana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
96 Pothos scandens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 139 0 247
24 1 149 103 0 48 0 35 18 0 0 3 0 3 6 9 0 2 6 0 0 0
97 Premna sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
98 Psychotria dalzellii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
99 Reissantia grahami 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 3 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
100 Reissantia indica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
101 Rhaphidophora sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
102 Rhynchostylis retusa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
103 Rhynchostylis sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0
104 Rough st cl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
105 Sarcostigma kleinii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
106 Saute kai 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
107 Securinega microcarpa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
108 Smilax sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 2 2 0 0 43
1 0 6 0 0 0 0 2 13 0 1 0 0 28 1 0 0 6 0 0 0 2
109 Smilax zeylanica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
110 Strychnos colubrina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
111 Tragia sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
112 Trifoliate cl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
113 Uvaria hooheri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
114 Uvaria narum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
115 Uvaria sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
116 Vanda sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 140 0 0 4 9 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 9 3 0
117 Ventilago bombaiensis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 4 1 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
118 Vigna sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
119 Viscum sp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
120 Ziziphus oenoplia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
121 Ziziphus rugosa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0

4.4.2 Quality of habitat and habitat preference
The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for 50 WRCPs are given
in table 4.4. Frequency distributions of six parameters for quadrats
having the particular WRCP and the total quadrats were used to make
bar graphs that are being given in figures.
4.4.3 Species Association/Classification
The results of the species association/classification are given
as dendrograms (Figure 4.1 to 4.46) for each WRCPs along with a brief
description (see the discussion).
4.5 Discussion
The basic idea behind in situ conservation is to maintain the
organisms under consideration in their natural habitats where they are
thriving well and are in good relationship and evolving with other
components of the ecosystem. Most of the in situ conservation efforts
should be targeted initially on those populations which are thriving
well. However, if there are some populations that are not surviving
well but have valuable alleles and genotypes associated with certain
conditions of active selection then it would be better to put them
under ex situ conservation first. Then find out reasons for their not
surviving well and act accordingly to conserve them in situ also if
possible. Such an example could be Amorphophallus mysorensis of
Biligiri Rangana Hills of Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A species
may be adapted to and may occur in more than one habitat types but
there would be a habitat type where that species thrives best. This
habitat could be termed the optimum or preferred habitat for that
species. The preferred habitat could be defined based on frequency of
encounter or density of the species in different habitats.
The preferred habitat of a species could also be characterized by
biophysical parameters representing the overall environment of the
habitat where individuals of the species inhabit. Again, there would
be a gradation and an optimal habitat. Furthermore, depending on how
often different biophysical environments support the organism under
consideration, one can also decide the preferred habitat of that
organism. Similarly, one can also see which are the other species that
are co-occurring with the organism under consideration. These
associated species might have some relationship with the organism
under consideration and among one another. Maintenance of such
relationships might be very necessary in in situ conservation.


Table 4.4 Results of KS test for 50 wrcps.

+---+----------------------+-----+-----------------------------------------+-----+
|SN |SPECIES |No.of| Dmax |Table|
| | | +------+------+------+------+------+------+ |
| | |Qs |CC |PEX |P3M |PEVG |PROP |PTSL |value|
+---+----------------------+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----+
|1 |Ipomoea pes-caprae |35 |0.426*|0.347*|0.695*|0.287*|0.324*|0.65* |0.22 |
|2 |Musa sp w |26 |0.378*|0.696*|0.695*|0.636*|0.742*|0.471*|0.26 |
|3 |Colocasia sp |19 |0.363*|0.642*|0.695*|0.514*|0.245 |0.624*|0.3 |
|4 |Curcuma neilgherrensis|15 |0.516*|0.515*|0.595*|0.306 |0.506*|0.487*|0.34 |
|5 |Dioscorea sp bl |16 |0.343*|0.611*|0.539*|0.36* |0.214 |0.507*|0.33 |
|6 |Amorphophallus sp |81 |0.312*|0.414*|0.497*|0.276*|0.326*|0.261*|0.15 |
|7 |Dioscorea sp sl |34 |0.299*|0.633*|0.371*|0.415*|0.212 |0.47* |0.23 |
|8 |Dioscorea pentaphylla |37 |0.344*|0.63* |0.452*|0.41* |0.368*|0.547*|0.22 |
|9 |Acacia catechu |36 |0.285*|0.61* |0.695*|0.5* |0.411*|0.282*|0.22 |
|10 |Crotalaria prostrata |16 |0.571*|0.379*|0.57* |0.382*|0.213 |0.344*|0.33 |
|11 |Ziziphus oenoplia |74 |0.251*|0.512*|0.276*|0.332*|0.186*|0.237*|0.16 |
|12 |Carissa carandas |46 |0.239*|0.4* |0.293*|0.31* |0.357*|0.271*|0.2 |
|13 |Syzygium caryophyllatu|57 |0.11 |0.39* |0.22* |0.344*|0.273*|0.297*|0.18 |
|14 |Vigna sp |21 |0.401*|0.347*|0.362*|0.227 |0.315*|0.306*|0.29 |
|15 |Curcuma sp |175 |0.264*|0.387*|0.501*|0.227*|0.111*|0.248*|0.1 |
|16 |Crotalaria sp |24 |0.338*|0.348*|0.362*|0.374*|0.262 |0.386*|0.27 |
|17 |Piper nigrum |198 |0.322*|0.615*|0.584*|0.56* |0.505*|0.417*|0.1 |
|18 |Dioscorea sp |32 |0.179 |0.52* |0.367*|0.352*|0.116 |0.264*|0.23 |
|19 |Syzygium laetum |14 |0.365*|0.427*|0.213 |0.227 |0.201 |0.218 |0.35 |
|20 |Syzygium cumini |86 |0.187*|0.347*|0.395*|0.433*|0.13 |0.294*|0.15 |
|21 |Jasminum sp |167 |0.138*|0.347*|0.329*|0.407*|0.22* |0.298*|0.11 |
|22 |Ipomoea sp |26 |0.301*|0.347*|0.386*|0.366*|0.157 |0.42* |0.26 |
|23 |Murraya koenigii |26 |0.148 |0.347*|0.35* |0.227 |0.147 |0.259*|0.26 |
|24 |Ziziphus rugosa |56 |0.206*|0.376*|0.193*|0.313*|0.157 |0.184*|0.18 |
|25 |Bambusa arundinacea |69 |0.247*|0.347*|0.173*|0.43* |0.438*|0.231*|0.16 |
|26 |Emblica officinalis |14 |0.302 |0.347 |0.29 |0.243 |0.374*|0.339 |0.35 |
|27 |Citrus sp |19 |0.593*|0.347*|0.663*|0.569*|0.385*|0.567*|0.3 |
|28 |Mangifera indica |42 |0.399*|0.347*|0.474*|0.501*|0.241*|0.369*|0.21 |
|29 |Garcinia indica |34 |0.328*|0.347*|0.564*|0.434*|0.283*|0.335*|0.23 |
|30 |Sapindus laurifolius |75 |0.522*|0.347*|0.505*|0.351*|0.163*|0.324*|0.16 |
|31 |Artocarpus hirsutus |55 |0.597*|0.347*|0.677*|0.529*|0.396*|0.529*|0.18 |
|32 |Cinnamomum verum |47 |0.573*|0.347*|0.647*|0.512*|0.383*|0.354*|0.2 |
|33 |Piper sp nl |65 |0.589*|0.347*|0.591*|0.566*|0.392*|0.441*|0.17 |
|34 |Garcinia gummi-gutta |243 |0.581*|0.347*|0.573*|0.515*|0.327*|0.446*|0.09 |
|35 |Garcinia talbotii |30 |0.587*|0.347*|0.612*|0.567*|0.198 |0.594*|0.24 |
|36 |Garcinia morella |129 |0.649*|0.347*|0.635*|0.595*|0.324*|0.429*|0.12 |
|37 |Knema attenuata |394 |0.625*|0.347*|0.588*|0.528*|0.258*|0.44* |0.07 |
|38 |Piper sp bl |111 |0.638*|0.347*|0.629*|0.557*|0.356*|0.374*|0.13 |
|39 |Piper sp |371 |0.625*|0.347*|0.572*|0.558*|0.319*|0.434*|0.07 |
|40 |Piper sp tssl |21 |0.538*|0.347*|0.622*|0.597*|0.236 |0.297*|0.29 |
|41 |Zingiber sp |27 |0.479*|0.347*|0.427*|0.388*|0.274*|0.32* |0.25 |
|42 |Syzygium hemisphericum|34 |0.622*|0.347*|0.464*|0.446*|0.23* |0.48* |0.23 |
|43 |Myristica dactyloides |56 |0.658*|0.347*|0.625*|0.587*|0.23* |0.424*|0.18 |
|44 |Cinnamomum malabathrum|50 |0.601*|0.347*|0.548*|0.544*|0.277*|0.453*|0.19 |
|45 |Syzygium gardneri |126 |0.683*|0.347*|0.61* |0.572*|0.259*|0.501*|0.12 |
|46 |Myristica malabarica |47 |0.699*|0.347*|0.61* |0.512*|0.274*|0.457*|0.2 |
|47 |Gymnacranthera canaric|50 |0.541*|0.347*|0.251*|0.66* |0.206*|0.342*|0.19 |
|48 |Myristica fatua |23 |0.638*|0.347*|0.398*|0.636*|0.302*|0.3* |0.28 |
|49 |Pinanga dicksonii |43 |0.565*|0.347*|0.378*|0.692*|0.242*|0.293*|0.21 |
|50 |Piper hookeri |46 |0.551*|0.347*|0.373*|0.622*|0.235*|0.3* |0.2 |
+---+----------------------+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+-----+


Based on the above considerations here 50 chosen WRCPs are
discussed in detail about their habitat preference. This would be
helpful if individual species-specific approaches are taken for their
in situ conservation. Based on the frequency of occurrence in various
habitat types, the order of habitat preference for each species is
given in a tabular form. In these tables, the column represented by
'n' gives the number of quadrats in which the species was encountered,
'a' gives the density of plants >=2cm dbh, 'b' gives the density of
plants <2cm dbh and 'c' gives the density of dependent plant species.
1. Ipomoea pes-caprae
Ipomoea pes-caprae plants were encountered in 35 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 35 quadrats are from only one
site representing coastal sandy beach and adjoining sand dune habitat
type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
13 Coastal sandy beach and adjoining sand dunes 35 118
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Ipomoea pes-caprae are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.1a shows that Ipomoea pes-caprae prefers an open canopied
habitat and is almost absent in habitats where canopy cover (CC) is
more than 10%. Figure 4.1b shows that Ipomoea pes-caprae is present
only where proportion of exotics (PEX) is not more than 10 per cent,
i.e., it prefers habitats where the PEX is very low. Figure 4.1c shows
that quadrats having Ipomoea pes-caprae come from quadrats where the
P3M is 100%, i.e., not more than three species of plants >=2cm dbh are
present in the habitat of Ipomoea pes-caprae. Figure 4.1d shows that
quadrats having Ipomoea pes-caprae have not more than 10% of
evergreens. Figure 4.1e shows that quadrats having Ipomoea pes-caprae
come from quadrats where the PROP is between 60-100% but
proportionately more quadrats having Ipomoea pes-caprae come from
quadrats where PROP is between 70-90%. Again, this shows that Ipomoea
pes-caprae prefers less diverse communities of plants <2cm dbh. Figure
4.1f shows that quadrats having Ipomoea pes-caprae come from the
quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 10 per cent.
Eight species were present in the 35 quadrats in which Ipomoea
pes-caprae plants were encountered. Out of eight species, the seven
species which co-occurred maximum with Ipomoea pes-caprae and had a
Jaccard index value of species association not less than 0.05 are
shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.1g) to show their
overall association with Ipomoea pes-caprae. The dendrogram shows that
Spinifex littoreus, Remirea maritima and Launaea pinnatifida are the
most closely associated with Ipomoea pes-caprae. Other close
associates are Ageratum spp., Borreria hispida and Eleusine
aegyptiaca. These species are mainly from a species poor coastal
habitat.
2. Musa sp. w (Musa species wild, most probably Musa acuminata)
Musa sp. w plants were encountered in 26 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 26 quadrats are from two sites
only representing two Areca garden habitat types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
40 Areca garden 25 52 3
39 Areca garden 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Musa sp. w are significantly different from the total quadrats
in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure 4.2a
shows that Musa sp. w prefers a partially open canopied habitat
(0-50%) and is almost absent in habitats where CC is high (more than
50%). Figure 4.2b shows that Musa sp. w is present in quadrats where
the PEX is 0-90%. Figure 4.2c shows that quadrats having Musa sp. w
come from quadrats where the P3M is 100%, i.e., not more than three
species of plants >=2cm dbh are present in the habitat of Musa sp. w
(in 5 x 10 m). Figure 4.2d shows that quadrats having Musa sp. w have
60-90% of evergreens. Figure 4.2e shows that majority of the quadrats
having Musa sp. w come from quadrats where the PROP is 100%. However,
a few quadrats having Musa sp. w are also from quadrats where PROP is
not more than 10%. It means that there is very patchy distribution of
a few more diverse communities of plants <2m dbh at small scale in a
relatively less diverse community of plants at a larger scale. Again,
this shows that Musa sp. w prefers less diverse communities of plants
<2cm dbh. Figure 4.2f shows that majority of the quadrats having Musa
sp. w come from the quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 10 per
cent. However, in a few quadrats the PTSL is as high as 100%.
Twenty-two species were present in the 26 quadrats in which Musa
sp. w plants were encountered. Out of 22 species, the 15 species which
co-occurred maximum with Musa sp. w and had a Jaccard index value of
species association not less than 0.05 are shown in a complete linkage
dendrogram (Figure 4.2g) to show their overall association with Musa
sp. w. The dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, an epiphytic fern and
Piper nigrum are the most closely associated species with Musa sp. w.
Other close associates are Dendrobium spp., Elettaria cardamomum and
some other plants of Areca gardens.
3. Colocasia sp.
Colocasia sp. plants were encountered in 19 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 19 quadrats are from five sites
represented by three Areca gardens and one each open scrub and mesa
habitat type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 10 18
39 Areca garden 4 7
40 Areca garden 3 7
37 Open scrub 1 6
1 Mesa 1 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Colocasia sp. are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.3a shows that Colocasia sp. prefers relatively open canopied
habitats (0-40%) and is almost absent in quadrats where CC is high
(more than 40%). Figure 4.3b shows that Colocasia sp. is present in
quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. Majority of the quadrats having
Colocasia spp. have come from Areca gardens where PEX is high. Figure
4.3c shows that quadrats having Colocasia sp. come from quadrats where
the P3M is 100%, i.e., not more than three species of plants >=2cm dbh
are present in the habitat of Colocasia sp. Figure 4.3d shows that
majority of the quadrats having Colocasia sp. are from quadrats where
PEVG is high (50-100%). Figure 4.3e shows that all the quadrats having
Colocasia sp. come from quadrats where the PROP is between 50-100%. It
means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Colocasia
spp. is low to medium. Figure 4.3f shows that all the quadrats having
Colocasia sp. come from the quadrats where the PTSL is not more than
10 per cent.
Forty-eight species were present in the 19 quadrats in which
Colocasia sp. plants were encountered. All the 48 species had a
Jaccard index value of species association with Colocasia sp. not less
than 0.05, and are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.3g) to show their overall association with Colocasia sp. The
dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, Piper nigrum, an epiphytic fern,
Curcuma spp., Musa paradisiaca, Dioscorea sp. sl, Impatiens spp. and
Dioscorea pentaphylla are the most closely associated species with
Colocasia sp.
4. Curcuma neilgherrensis
Curcuma neilgherrensis plants were encountered in 15 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 15 quadrats are from only
one site representing Cashew and Eucalyptus plantation habitat type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 15 33
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Curcuma neilgherrensis are significantly different from the
total quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.4a shows that Curcuma neilgherrensis prefers open canopied
habitats (0-20%). Figure 4.4b shows that Curcuma neilgherrensis is
present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. Majority of the quadrats
having Curcuma neilgherrensis have come from quadrats where PEX is
high. Figure 4.4c shows that quadrats having Curcuma neilgherrensis
come from quadrats where the P3M is between 60-100%, i.e., species
poor plant communities of plants >=2cm dbh are present in the habitat
of Curcuma neilgherrensis. Figure 4.4d shows that all the quadrats
having Curcuma neilgherrensis are from quadrats where PEVG is not more
than 10 per cent. Figure 4.4e shows that all the quadrats having
Curcuma neilgherrensis are from quadrats where the PROP is between
30-80%. This shows that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the quadrats
(habitat) of Curcuma neilgherrensis is medium to moderately high.
Figure 4.4f shows that all the quadrats having Curcuma neilgherrensis
come from the quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 20%. It means
that regeneration of tree species in the habitat of Curcuma
neilgherrensis is low.
Forty-eight species were present in the 15 quadrats in which
Curcuma neilgherrensis plants were encountered. All the 48 species had
a Jaccard index value of species association with Curcuma
neilgherrensis not less than 0.05, and are shown in a complete linkage
dendrogram (Figure 4.4g) to show their general association with
Curcuma neilgherrensis. The dendrogram shows that Naregamia alata,
Anacardium occidentale, Loranthus spp., Curculigo orchioides,
Strychnos nux-vomica, Phyllanthus spp., Cassia tora and Terminalia
paniculata are the more closely associated species of Curcuma
neilgherrensis.
5. Dioscorea sp. bl (Dioscorea species big leaved)
Dioscorea sp. bl plants were encountered in 16 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 16 quadrats are from six sites
represented by Areca garden, Cashew and Eucalyptus plantation,
Sandalwood plantation, and Riverside vegetation habitat types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 5 1 8
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 4 0 8
40 Areca garden 2 0 2
39 Areca garden 2 0 2
46 Sandalwood plantation 2 0 2
44 Riverside vegetation 1 3 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Dioscorea sp. bl are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding general distribution. Figure
4.5a shows that Dioscorea sp. bl prefers habitats where CC is between
0-40% and is almost absent in quadrats where CC is high (more than
40%). Figure 4.5b shows that Dioscorea sp. bl is present in quadrats
where the PEX is 0-100%. But most of the quadrats having Dioscorea sp.
bl have come from Areca gardens and Cashew & Eucalyptus plantations
where PEX is high. Figure 4.5c shows that quadrats having Dioscorea
sp. bl come from quadrats where the P3M is between 40-100%, i.e.,
medium to less diverse communities of plants >=2cm dbh. Figure 4.5d
shows that the quadrats having Dioscorea sp. bl are from quadrats
where PEVG is ranging from 0-100%, but proportionately more quadrats
having Dioscorea sp. bl are from quadrats where PEVG is between
30-90%. Figure 4.5e shows that all the quadrats having Dioscorea sp.
bl come from quadrats where the PROP is between 50-100%. It means that
diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Dioscorea sp. bl is low
to medium. Figure 4.5f shows that all the quadrats having Dioscorea
sp. bl come from the quadrats where the PTSL is low (not more than ten
per cent) to moderate (50-60%) showing low to moderate regeneration of
trees in the habitat of Dioscorea sp. bl.
Sixty-eight species were present in the 16 quadrats in which
Dioscorea sp. bl plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.5g) to show their overall association with Dioscorea sp. bl. The
dendrogram shows that the most closely associated species of Dioscorea
sp. bl are Cyclea peltata, Pothos scandens and Uvaria narum - all
climbers. Other closer associates are Areca catechu, Piper nigrum, and
Dioscorea pentaphylla etc.

6. Amorphophallus sp.
(Please see chapter 8)
7. Dioscorea sp. sl (Dioscorea species small leaved)
Dioscorea sp. sl plants were encountered in 34 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 34 quadrats are from six sites
represented by Areca garden, Sandalwood plantation, Eucalyptus
plantation and Riverside vegetation habitat types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 12 26 9
46 Sandalwood plantation 8 2 6
40 Areca garden 7 9 8
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 3 1 3
39 Areca garden 2 4 3
44 Riverside vegetation 2 2 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Dioscorea sp. sl are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.7a shows that Dioscorea sp. sl prefers partially open canopied
habitats (0-50% CC) and is almost absent in quadrats where CC is high
(more than 50%). Figure 4.7b shows that Dioscorea sp. sl is present in
quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. Majority of the quadrats having
Dioscorea sp. sl have come from quadrats where PEX is more than 10 per
cent. Figure 4.7c shows that quadrats having Dioscorea sp. sl come
from quadrats where the P3M is between 50-100%, i.e., medium to less
diverse communities of plants >=2cm dbh. Figure 4.7d shows that the
quadrats having Dioscorea sp. sl are from quadrats where PEVG ranges
between 0-100%. But proportionately more are from quadrats where PEVG
is more. Figure 4.7e shows that all the quadrats having Dioscorea sp.
sl come from quadrats where the PROP is between 0-100%. However,
majority and proportionately more come from 0.4-0.9 range showing that
Dioscorea sp. sl is from medium to less species-rich plant communities
but occasionally from quite rich plant communities. Figure 4.7f shows
that majority of the quadrats having Dioscorea sp. sl come from the
quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 10 per cent, but they are
also coming from quadrats where PTSL is up to 0.6. This means that
regeneration of trees in the habitats of Dioscorea sp. sl is low to
medium.
Ninety-six species were present in the 34 quadrats in which
Dioscorea sp. sl plants were encountered. The 49 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.7g) to show their overall association with Dioscorea sp. sl. The
dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, Piper nigrum, Curcuma spp. and
Dioscorea pentaphylla are the most closely associated species with
Dioscorea sp. sl.
8. Dioscorea pentaphylla
Dioscorea pentaphylla plants were encountered in 37 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 37 quadrats are from five
sites represented by Areca gardens, Sandalwood plantation, Eucalyptus
plantation, and Cashew and Eucalyptus plantation habitat type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 20 31 36
40 Areca garden 7 2 8
46 Sandalwood plantation 5 0 5
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 4 2 9
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Dioscorea pentaphylla are significantly different from the
total quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall
distribution. Figure 4.8a shows that most of the quadrats having
Dioscorea pentaphylla are from quadrats where CC is not more than 30%,
but it has also come in quadrats where CC is up to 70%. Figure 4.8b
shows that Dioscorea pentaphylla is present in quadrats where the PEX
is 0-100%. Majority of the quadrats having Dioscorea pentaphylla have
come from Areca gardens where PEX is high. Figure 4.8c shows that
quadrats having Dioscorea pentaphylla come from quadrats where the P3M
is between 40-100%, i.e., medium to very less diverse communities of
plants >=2cm dbh. Figure 4.8d shows that majority of the quadrats
having Dioscorea pentaphylla are from quadrats where PEVG is high
(50-100%). Figure 4.8e shows that all the quadrats having Dioscorea
pentaphylla come from quadrats where the PROP is between 40-100%. It
means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Dioscorea
pentaphylla is low to medium. Figure 4.8f shows that all the quadrats
having Dioscorea pentaphylla come from the quadrats where the PTSL is
not more than 20%.
Ninety-two species were present in the 37 quadrats in which
Dioscorea pentaphylla plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.8g) to show their overall association with Dioscorea pentaphylla.
The dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, Piper nigrum, Curcuma spp.,
Dioscorea sp. sl, Impatiens spp. and Dioscorea sp. bl are the most
closely associated species with Dioscorea pentaphylla.
9. Acacia catechu
Acacia catechu plants were encountered in 36 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 36 quadrats are from five sites
representing Acacia auriculiformis plantation and Open scrub habitat
types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 17 23 2
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 11 17 0
9 Open scrub 3 0 3
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 3 0 3
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 2 1 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Acacia catechu are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.9a shows that Acacia catechu comes in habitats where CC is up
to 60%. Figure 4.9b shows that Acacia catechu is present in quadrats
where the PEX is 0-100%. But proportionately more quadrats having
Acacia catechu are from quadrats where PEX is between 10-80%. Figure
4.9c shows that all quadrats having Acacia catechu are from quadrats
where the P3M is 100%, i.e., not more than three species of plants
>=2cm dbh were present in each of the 36 quadrats with Acacia catechu.
Figure 4.9d shows that majority of the quadrats having Acacia catechu
are from quadrats where PEVG is low (not more than 20%). Figure 4.9e
shows that all the quadrats having Acacia catechu come from quadrats
where the PROP is between below ten and 100%, but in majority of the
quadrats having Acacia catechu, not more than three species are there.
It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Acacia
catechu is low (in majority of the quadrats) to moderately high and
very high in some quadrats. Figure 4.9f shows that the quadrats having
Acacia catechu come from the quadrats where the PTSL is 0-100%. This
means that regeneration of tree species in the habitat of Acacia
catechu is highly variable and fairly high.
Thirty-eight species were present in the 36 quadrats in which
Acacia catechu plants were encountered. Only 22 species qualified the
above stated criteria for classification, and a complete linkage
dendrogram (Figure 4.9g) shows their general association with Acacia
catechu. The dendrogram shows that Acacia auriculiformis, Naregamia
alata, and Canthium parviflorum are the most closely associated
species with Acacia catechu.

10. Crotalaria prostrata
Crotalaria prostrata plants were encountered in 16 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 16 quadrats are from six
sites representing six different habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 9 29
20 Open scrub 3 10
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 2
21 Betta land 1 2
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 1
28 Teak plantation 1 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Crotalaria prostrata are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.10a shows that Crotalaria prostrata prefers largely open canopied
habitats (0-50% CC). Figure 4.10b shows that Crotalaria prostrata is
present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. Figure 4.10c shows that
quadrats having Crotalaria prostrata come from quadrats where the P3M
is between 70-100%. That means very less diverse communities of plants
>=2cm dbh are present in the habitat of Crotalaria prostrata. Figure
4.10d shows that though majority of the quadrats having Crotalaria
prostrata are from quadrats where PEVG is very less 0-10%, yet it
comes occasionally in whole range of evergreen quadrats. Figure 4.10e
shows that all the quadrats having Crotalaria prostrata come from
quadrats where the PROP is between 50-100%. It means that diversity of
plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Crotalaria prostrata is low to
medium. Figure 4.10f shows that regeneration of tree seedlings in
quadrats having Crotalaria prostrata is low.
Sixty-two species were present in the 16 quadrats in which
Crotalaria prostrata plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species of Crotalaria prostrata are shown in a complete
linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.10g) to show their general association
with Crotalaria prostrata. The dendrogram shows that Phyllanthus spp.,
Melastoma spp. Eucalyptus spp. and Cassia tora are the most closely
associated species with Crotalaria prostrata.
11. Ziziphus oenoplia
Ziziphus oenoplia was encountered in 74 quadrats of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These quadrats are from 17 sites representing
many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
46 Sandalwood plantation 22 3 9 25
7 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 8 0 11 0
37 Open scrub 7 0 5 2
44 Riverside vegetation 6 2 2 3
6 Casuarina plantation 6 0 11 0
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 4 1 3 0
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 4 0 5 0
20 Open scrub 4 2 2 0
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 3 1 2 0
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 3 0 4 0
1 Mesa 1 0 1 0
4 Mesa 1 0 1 0
42 Areca garden 1 0 1 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 1 0 0
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1 0
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 1 1 0 0
30 Deciduous forest 1 0 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats having Ziziphus
oenoplia are significantly different from the total quadrats with
respect to all the six parameters. Figure 4.11a shows that quadrats
having Ziziphus oenoplia come from quadrats having CC ranging from
0-80%, but majority are concentrated where CC is low. Clearly it
prefers relatively open canopied habitats. In open canopied habitats
Ziziphus oenoplia is like shrub or small tree but in habitats where CC
is relatively high, Ziziphus oenoplia is a scandent shrub climbing on
other trees. It has no pattern of climbing. Figure 4.11b shows that
the quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia come from quadrats where PEX
ranges from 0-100%, i.e., whole range. But proportionately more of
them come from quadrats where PEX is high. Actually Ziziphus oenoplia
is found more in so called degraded or disturbed habitats. Figure
4.11c shows that quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia come from quadrats
where P3M is between 20-100%. But relatively more quadrats having
Ziziphus oenoplia are from those quadrats where P3M is 60-100%. This
means that diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in the habitats of Ziziphus
oenoplia is low to medium to moderately high. Figure 4.11d shows that
majority of the quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia come from quadrats
where PEVG is low to medium (0-60%), i.e., deciduous to moist
deciduous and semievergreen forests but it also comes occasionally in
disturbed evergreen forests. Figure 4.11e shows that quadrats having
Ziziphus oenoplia come from quadrats where proportion of three most
abundant plant species <2cm dbh ranges between 0-100%, but
proportionately more quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia are from
quadrats where proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm
dbh is between 40-80%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in
Ziziphus oenoplia habitats is very low to very high but usually low to
medium. Figure 4.11f shows that quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia come
from quadrats where PTSL is between 0-80%. But proportionately more
quadrats having Ziziphus oenoplia are from quadrats where PTSL is low
(0-60%). This means that regeneration of trees is low to fair in the
habitats of Ziziphus oenoplia.
One hundred fifty-one species were present in the 74 quadrats in
which Ziziphus oenoplia plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species of Ziziphus oenoplia are shown in a complete
linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.11g) to show their general association
with Ziziphus oenoplia. The dendrogram shows that Aporosa lindleyana,
Gymnema sylvestre, Cyclea peltata, Jasminum spp. Sapium insigne and
Syzygium caryophyllatum are the most closely associated species with
Ziziphus oenoplia.
12. Carissa carandas
Carissa carandas plants were encountered in 46 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 46 quadrats are from nine sites
representing seven habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
37 Open scrub 13 10 4 2
6 Casuarina plantation 12 1 24 0
20 Open scrub 6 9 0 0
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 4 4 0 0
9 Open scrub 3 3 0 0
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 3 1 1 1
46 Sandalwood plantation 2 0 1 1
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 2 2 0 1
14 Evergreen forest 1 0 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Carissa carandas are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.12a shows that Carissa carandas prefers relatively open
canopied habitats but it also come in quadrats where CC is up to 80%.
Figure 4.12b shows that Carissa carandas is present in quadrats where
the PEX is 0-100%. Figure 4.12c shows that quadrats having Carissa
carandas come from quadrats where the P3M is between 30-100%, i.e.,
low to moderately high diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in the quadrats
with Carissa carandas. Figure 4.12d shows that majority of the
quadrats having Carissa carandas are from quadrats where PEVG is low,
but a few quadrats with Carissa carandas are also from quadrats where
PEVG is as high as 90-100%. Figure 4.12e shows that though the
quadrats having Carissa carandas come from quadrats where the PROP is
between 0-100%, most quadrats having Carissa carandas are from the
middle of range, i.e., medium diverse communities. Figure 4.12f shows
that majority of the quadrats having Carissa carandas come from the
quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 20%.
One hundred eleven species were present in the 46 quadrats in
which Carissa carandas plants were encountered. Forty-nine species had
a Jaccard index value of species association with Carissa carandas not
less than 0.05, and are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.12g) to show their overall association with Carissa carandas. The
dendrogram shows that Memecylon umbellatum, Aglaia talbotii,
Flacourtia sepiaria, Ixora coccinea, Curcuma spp., Dalbergia
sympathetica, Amorphophallus spp., Casuarina equisetifolia, Crinum
spp., Ziziphus oenoplia and Ervattamia heyneana are the most closely
associated species with Carissa carandas.
13. Syzygium caryophyllatum
Syzygium caryophyllatum plants were encountered in 57 quadrats
out of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 57 quadrats are from 13
sites representing many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
20 Open scrub 16 10 28
9 Open scrub 9 5 13
37 Open scrub 7 8 3
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 7 0 15
46 Sandalwood plantation 4 5 3
17 Evergreen forest 4 4 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest3 2 3
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 2 0 2
6 Casuarina plantation 1 0 1
7 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 5
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 2
14 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Syzygium caryophyllatum are significantly different from the
total quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.13a shows that Syzygium caryophyllatum prefers relatively
open canopied habitats, though the general distribution of CC in
quadrats having Syzygium caryophyllatum is not significantly different
from total quadrats. Figure 4.13b shows that Syzygium caryophyllatum
is present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. Figure 4.13c shows
that quadrats having Syzygium caryophyllatum come from quadrats where
the P3M is between 20 to 100%, i.e., low to moderately high diversity
of plants >=2cm dbh in the habitat of Syzygium caryophyllatum. Figure
4.13d shows that the quadrats having Syzygium caryophyllatum are from
quadrats where PEVG is ranging between 0-90%. Figure 4.13e shows that
all the quadrats having Syzygium caryophyllatum come from quadrats
where the PROP is between 30-100%, but proportionately more are from
30-80 range. Figure 4.13f shows that the quadrats having Syzygium
caryophyllatum come from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging from
0-100%.
One hundred forty-four species were present in the 57 quadrats in
which Syzygium caryophyllatum plants were encountered. Fifty more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.13g) to show their overall association with Syzygium
caryophyllatum. The dendrogram shows that Memecylon umbellatum, Aglaia
talbotii, Naregamia alata, Flacourtia sepiaria, Smilax spp., Aporosa
lindleyana, Jasminum spp., Gymnema sylvestre, Cyclea peltata,
Dalbergia sympathetica, Ixora brachiata and Pothos scandens are the
most closely associated species forming one major cluster with
Syzygium caryophyllatum.
14. Vigna sp.
Vigna sp. plants were encountered in 21 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 21 quadrats are from six sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
37 Open scrub 8 13 1
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 6 10 1
46 Sandalwood plantation 3 2 1
9 Open scrub 2 2 0
44 Riverside vegetation 1 2 0
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Vigna sp. are significantly different from the total quadrats
in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure 4.14a shows
that Vigna sp. prefer relatively open canopied habitats. Figure 4.14b
shows that Vigna sp. are present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%.
Figure 4.14c shows that quadrats having Vigna sp. come from quadrats
where the P3M is between 40-100%. Figure 4.14d shows that majority of
the quadrats having Vigna sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is ranging
from 0-100%. Figure 4.14e shows that all the quadrats having Vigna sp.
come from quadrats where the PROP is between 30-100%. It means that
diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Vigna spp. is low to
medium or moderately high. Figure 4.14f shows that all the quadrats
having Vigna sp. come from the quadrats where the PTSL is not more
than 40%.
Eighty-seven species were present in the 21 quadrats in which
Vigna sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely associated sp.
are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.14g) to show
their overall association with Vigna sp. The dendrogram shows that
Eupatorium odoratum, Eucalyptus spp., Terminalia paniculata,
Caesalpinia nuga, Murraya koenigii and Sida spp. are the most closely
associated species with Vigna sp.
15. Curcuma sp.
Curcuma sp. were encountered in 175 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 175 quadrats are from 20 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 31 663 0
30 Deciduous forest 30 70 1
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 24 84 0
2 Mesa 20 125 0
6 Casuarina plantation 18 71 0
4 Mesa 10 56 0
14 Evergreen forest 8 13 0
37 Open scrub 8 21 0
17 Evergreen forest 5 5 0
44 Riverside vegetation 4 5 0
11 Teak plantation 3 6 0
1 Mesa 3 7 0
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 2 3 0
26 Myristica swamp 2 11 0
16 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
46 Sandalwood plantation 1 1 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 1 0
21 Betta land 1 2 0
9 Open scrub 1 2 0
7 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 3 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Curcuma sp. are significantly different from the total quadrats
in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.15a shows that though Curcuma sp. prefer relatively open canopied
habitats, yet they come in the whole range of the canopied habitats.
Figure 4.15b shows that Curcuma sp. are present in quadrats where the
PEX is 0-100%. Figure 4.15c shows that quadrats having Curcuma sp.
come from quadrats where the P3M is between 30-100%. Figure 4.15d
shows that the quadrats having Curcuma sp. are from quadrats where
PEVG is ranging from 0-100%, but majority are from less evergreen
habitats. Figure 4.15e shows that the quadrats having Curcuma sp. come
from quadrats where the PROP is between 0-100%. However, majority are
from middle range. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the
habitat of Curcuma sp. is low to medium and occasionally very high.
Figure 4.15f shows that though the quadrats having Curcuma sp. come
from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging from 0-100%, majority of
the quadrats are from habitats where PTSL is not more than 20%, i.e.,
regeneration of tree species is poor.
Two hundred three species were present in the 175 quadrats in
which Curcuma sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated sp. are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.14g) to show their overall association with Curcuma sp. The
dendrogram shows that Memecylon umbellatum, Ixora coccinea, Flacourtia
sepiaria, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia,
Amorphophallus spp., Aglaia talbotii, Dalbergia sympathetica, Carissa
carandas, and Ziziphus oenoplia are the most closely associated
species and forming a cluster with Curcuma sp.
16. Crotalaria sp.
Crotalaria sp. were encountered in 24 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 24 quadrats are from eight sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 8 17
11 Teak plantation 7 30
46 Sandalwood plantation 3 7
9 Open scrub 2 9
13 Coastal sandy beach and adjoining sand 1 2
22 Betta land 1 1
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 3
14 Evergreen forest 1 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Crotalaria sp. are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.16a shows that Crotalaria sp. prefer relatively open canopied
habitats. Figure 4.16b shows that Crotalaria sp. prefer quadrats where
the PEX is less, but they are also occurring in quadrats where PEX is
as high as 90%. Figure 4.16c shows that quadrats having Crotalaria sp.
come from quadrats where the P3M is between 30-100%. Figure 4.16d
shows that majority of the quadrats having Crotalaria sp. are from
quadrats where PEVG is ranging from 0-50% though they can occur in
complete evergreen habitats also. Figure 4.16e shows that all the
quadrats having Crotalaria sp. come from quadrats where the PROP is
between 50-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the
habitat of Crotalaria sp. is low to medium. Figure 4.16f shows that
all the quadrats having Crotalaria sp. come from the quadrats where
the PTSL is not more than 40%.
Eighty-four species were present in the 24 quadrats in which
Crotalaria sp. were encountered. Only 29 species qualified the
criteria for classification and a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.16g) to show their overall association with Crotalaria sp. The
dendrogram shows that Eupatorium odoratum, Eucalyptus spp., and Sida
spp. are the most closely associated species with Crotalaria sp.
17. Piper nigrum
Piper nigrum was encountered in 198 quadrats of the total 2300
quadrats sampled. These 198 quadrats are from nine sites representing
many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
42 Areca garden 46 5 137
40 Areca garden 43 36 106
39 Areca garden 39 11 118
43 Areca garden 39 10 102
26 Myristica swamp 17 16 13
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 10 1 15
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 2 0 2
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 1 0 1
22 Betta land 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats having Piper nigrum
are significantly different from the total quadrats with respect to
all the six parameters. Figure 4.17a shows that quadrats having Piper
nigrum come from quadrats having a whole range of CC (0-100%).
Majority of the quadrats having Piper nigrum are from Areca gardens
where CC is usually between 0-40%. A second group of quadrats having
Piper nigrum are from good evergreen forests where CC is up to
80-100%. The first group is cultivated whereas the second group is
wild. Clearly a somewhat bimodal distribution is visible as expected.
Figure 4.17b again shows the bimodal type of distribution of Piper
nigrum regarding distribution of proportion of quadrats having Piper
nigrum with respect to PEX. Majority of quadrats, which are from Areca
gardens, have high PEX because of Areca catechu, Coffea arabica,
Theobroma cacao and Cocos nucifera cultivation in Areca gardens. The
second group of quadrats having Piper nigrum are from good evergreen
forests where hardly any exotics are found. This second group shows
0-10% exotics but in reality (if one looks at the raw data) most of
the quadrats of this group would be having PEX near 0 per cent. All of
them got clubbed together because of a large class interval. Figure
4.17c shows majority of the quadrats having Piper nigrum have come
where P3M is 100% showing species poor nature of Areca gardens
regarding plants >=2cm dbh. Very less proportion of quadrats are from
plant communities where three most abundant plant species are not more
than 40% of the total plants >=2cm dbh, that is, moderately high to
very highly diverse communities of plants >=2cm dbh indicating
evergreen forests. Figure 4.17d shows that majority of the quadrats
having Piper nigrum are confined to quadrats where PEVG is high
(>60%). This suggests that Piper nigrum (in its wild state) is a plant
of very good evergreen habitats where PEVG is high. This also suggests
that majority of the plants cultivated in Areca gardens are also of
evergreen phenology. Very less proportion of quadrats having
evergreens less than 50% would harbour Piper nigrum. Figure 4.17e
shows that quadrats having Piper nigrum come from quadrats where
proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is between
30-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in Piper nigrum
habitats is low (in case of Areca gardens) to medium or moderately
high (in case of evergreen forests). In very few cases it is very high
also. Figure 4.17f shows that quadrats having Piper nigrum come from
quadrats having PTSL between 0-100%. But proportionately more quadrats
having Piper nigrum are from quadrats where PTSL is not more than 10%.
This means that regeneration of trees is fairly low (in case of Areca
gardens) to fairly good (in case of evergreen forests) in the habitats
of Piper nigrum.
One hundred sixty-one species were encountered in the 198
quadrats where Piper nigrum was present. Fifty more closely associated
species of Piper nigrum are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.17g). The dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, an epiphytic
fern, Piper betle, Theobroma cacao, Laportea interrupta and Dioscorea
spp. are the most close associates of Piper nigrum.
18. Dioscorea sp.
Dioscorea sp. were encountered in 32 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 32 quadrats are from 13 sites
representing many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
39 Areca garden 10 30 14
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 5 2 5
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 3 3 1
40 Areca garden 3 7 1
18 Evergreen forest 2 0 2
44 Riverside vegetation 2 4 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 1 0 1
21 Betta land 1 0 1
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
37 Open scrub 1 2 0
46 Sandalwood plantation 1 0 1
27 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------

The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Dioscorea sp. are significantly different from the total
quadrats in four parameters regarding general distribution. Figure
4.18a shows that though the two distributions are not significantly
different, yet proportionately more quadrats with Dioscorea sp. are
10-40% CC range. Figure 4.18b shows that Dioscorea sp. is present in
quadrats where the PEX is ranging between 0-100%, and a some sort of
bimodal distribution is there. Figure 4.18c shows that quadrats having
Dioscorea sp. come from quadrats where the P3M is between 20-100%, but
majority are from species poor quadrats. Figure 4.18d shows that the
quadrats having Dioscorea sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is ranging
from zero to 100 per cent. Figure 4.18e shows that though the quadrats
having Dioscorea sp. come from quadrats where the PROP is ranging
between 0-100%, proportionately more quadrats having Dioscorea sp. are
from 30-90% range. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the
habitat of Dioscorea sp. is usually medium to low and rarely very
high. Figure 4.18f shows that all the quadrats having Dioscorea sp.
come from the quadrats where the PTSL is 0-80%. But majority of the
quadrats having Dioscorea sp. are confined to quadrats where PTSL is
not more than 10 per cent.
One hundred thirty-three species were present in the 32 quadrats
in which Dioscorea sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.18g) to show their overall association with Dioscorea sp. The
dendrogram shows that Areca catechu, an epiphytic fern, Piper nigrum,
Impatiens spp., Piper betle, Theobroma cacao, Laportea interrupta,
Drynaria spp. and Dendrobium spp. are the most closely associated
species with Dioscorea sp.
19. Syzygium laetum
Syzygium laetum was encountered in 14 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 14 quadrats are from six sites
representing five habitat types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
4 Mesa 5 0 9
12 Evergreen forest 3 1 3
11 Teak plantation 2 2 0
14 Evergreen forest 2 1 3
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 0 1
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Syzygium laetum are significantly different from the total
quadrats only in two parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.19a shows that Syzygium laetum has come in quadrats where CC
is ranging between 0-90%. Figure 4.19b shows that Syzygium laetum is
present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. But majority of the
quadrats having Syzygium laetum are from quadrats where PEX is not
more than 10 per cent. Figure 4.19c shows that quadrats having
Syzygium laetum have medium to low diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in 50
sq. m quadrats. Figure 4.19d shows that though the quadrats having
Syzygium laetum are from quadrats where PEVG is ranging 0-100%,
majority of quadrats having Syzygium laetum are from areas where PEVG
is not more than 10 per cent. Figure 4.19e shows that the quadrats
having Syzygium laetum come from quadrats where the PROP is between
30-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of
Syzygium laetum is low to medium and occasionally moderately high.
Figure 4.19f shows that all the quadrats having Syzygium laetum come
from the quadrats where the PTSL is not more than 70%.
Sixty-two species were present in the 14 quadrats in which
Syzygium laetum plants were encountered. Fifty more closely associated
species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.19g) to
show their overall association with Syzygium laetum. The dendrogram
shows that Curcuma spp., Flacourtia sepiaria, Amorphophallus spp.,
Cassia tora, and Grewia spp. are the most closely associated species
with Syzygium laetum.
20. Syzygium cumini
Syzygium cumini was encountered in 86 quadrats of the total 2300
quadrats sampled. These 86 quadrats are from 19 sites representing
many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 12 1 48
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 11 29 5
21 Betta land 9 8 4
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 9 8 2
9 Open scrub 7 5 6
14 Evergreen forest 7 7 0
46 Sandalwood plantation 6 3 6
22 Betta land 6 8 1
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 3 2 2
37 Open scrub 3 2 9
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 3 2 1
12 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
20 Open scrub 2 2 0
44 Riverside vegetation 1 1 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 2 0
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 2
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 1 0 1
30 Deciduous forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats having Syzygium
cumini are not significantly different from the total quadrats only
with respect to proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm
dbh. Figure 4.20a shows that quadrats having Syzygium cumini come from
quadrats having a whole range of CC (0-100%). But quadrats having
Syzygium cumini are proportionately more from quadrats where CC is
between 40-90% (medium to high) and proportionately less where CC is
either low (0-40%) or very high (90-100%). Figure 4.20b shows that
majority and proportionately more quadrats having Syzygium cumini come
from quadrats where PEX is not more than 10%. In rest of the habitats
where PEX ranges from 10-100%, the quadrats having Syzygium cumini are
very less. In habitats where PEX is very high (80-100%, like
monocultural plantations of exotic trees or cultivations of palms), a
few trees of Syzygium cumini are either planted by forest department
or by farmers. Figure 4.20c shows that quadrats having Syzygium cumini
come from quadrats where P3M is between 20-100%. But relatively more
quadrats having Syzygium cumini are from those quadrats where P3M is
20-80%. This means that diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in the Syzygium
cumini habitats is low to fairly high. Figure 4.20d shows that
majority and proportionately more quadrats having Syzygium cumini are
from quadrats where PEVG is 10-90%. Proportionately less quadrats
having Syzygium cumini are from quadrats where PEVG is either very low
(not more than 10%) or very high (90-100%). Figure 4.20e shows that
quadrats having Syzygium cumini come from quadrats where proportion of
three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is between 20-100%, but
proportionately more where proportion of three most abundant plant
species <2cm dbh is between 30-80%. It means that diversity of plants
<2cm dbh in Syzygium cumini habitats is low to moderately high. Figure
4.20f shows that quadrats having Syzygium cumini come from quadrats
having PTSL between 0-100%. But proportionately more quadrats having
Syzygium cumini are from quadrats where PTSL is between 10-70%. This
means that regeneration of trees is fair in the habitats of Syzygium
cumini. The above description shows that Syzygium cumini has a very
broad ecological niche.
One hundred ninety-two species were present in the 86 quadrats in
which Syzygium cumini plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.20g) to show their overall association with Syzygium cumini. The
dendrogram shows that Hopea ponga, Olea dioica, Ixora brachiata,
Gnetum ula, Pothos scandens, Eupatorium odoratum, and Jasminum spp.
are the most closely associated species with Syzygium cumini.

21. Jasminum sp.
Jasminum sp. were encountered in 167 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 167 quadrats are from 27 sites
representing many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 27 1 16 39
37 Open scrub 22 1 0 40
20 Open scrub 20 0 1 41
22 Betta land 19 0 14 13
9 Open scrub 17 0 8 16
16 Evergreen forest 12 0 1 23
29 Evergreen forest 8 0 2 13
46 Sandalwood plantation 6 0 2 6
21 Betta land 6 0 4 7
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 5 0 2 5
23 Evergreen forest 5 0 1 6
14 Evergreen forest 3 0 1 3
26 Myristica swamp 2 0 1 2
8 Casuarina plantation 2 0 2 0
27 Evergreen forest 1 0 1 1
6 Casuarina plantation 1 0 1 0
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1 0
42 Areca garden 1 1 1 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 0 1 1
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 1 0 1 0
5 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 2 0
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1 0
17 Evergreen forest 1 0 0 1
11 Teak plantation 1 0 1 0
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 2 2
19 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1 0
7 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Jasminum sp. are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.21a shows that Jasminum sp. are present habitats with whole
range of CC. Figure 4.21b shows that Jasminum sp. is present in
quadrats where the PEX is 0-100%. But majority of the quadrats having
Jasminum sp. are from quadrats where PEX is not more than 10 per cent.
Figure 4.21c shows that quadrats having Jasminum sp. come from
quadrats where the P3M is between 10-100%, but proportionately more
quadrats having Jasminum sp. are from quadrats where P3M is between
10-80%. Figure 4.21d shows that majority of the quadrats having
Jasminum sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is between 10-90%. Figure
4.21e shows that though the quadrats having Jasminum sp. come from
quadrats where the PROP is ranging between 0-100%, yet proportionately
more quadrats having Jasminum sp. are from quadrats where prop is
between 30-80%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the
habitat of Jasminum sp. is very low to very high but usually medium.
Figure 4.21f shows that the quadrats having Jasminum sp. come from the
quadrats where the PTSL is ranging between 0-100% but more quadrats
having Jasminum sp. are from 10-80% range.
Two hundred fifty-two species were present in the 167 quadrats in
which Jasminum sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.21g) to show their overall association with Jasminum sp. The
dendrogram shows that Aporosa lindleyana, Ixora brachiata, and
Mimusops elengii are the most closely associated species with
Jasminum sp. These species together are further associated with two
more groups of species.
22. Ipomoea sp.
Ipomoea sp. were encountered in 26 quadrats out of the total 2300
quadrats sampled. These 26 quadrats are from 11 sites representing
many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
22 Betta land 6 3 5
21 Betta land 5 2 3
9 Open scrub 4 0 4
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 2 0 3
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 2 20 1
37 Open scrub 2 0 3
36 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1
29 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
14 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
18 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Ipomoea sp. are significantly different from the total quadrats
in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure 4.22a shows
that though have a wider niche in the dimension of CC, yet
proportionately more quadrats having Ipomoea sp. are from CC range of
30-90%. Figure 4.22b shows that Ipomoea sp. is present in quadrats
where the PEX is 0-90%. But majority of the quadrats having Ipomoea
sp. are from quadrats where PEX is not more than 10 per cent. Figure
4.22c shows that quadrats having Ipomoea sp. come from quadrats where
the P3M is between 30-100%. But proportionately more are from the
middle to lower middle range. Figure 4.22d shows that the quadrats
having Ipomoea sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is ranging between
0-100%, but in mid range, there are more quadrats with Ipomoea sp.
Figure 4.22e shows that majority of the quadrats having Ipomoea sp.
are confined to quadrats where the PROP is between 50-100%. It means
that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Ipomoea sp. is low
to medium. Figure 4.22f shows that all the quadrats having Ipomoea sp.
come from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging from 0-100% but
proportionately more from higher range. It means that tree
regeneration in the habitat of Ipomoea sp. is usually very good.
One hundred twenty-four species were present in the 26 quadrats
in which Ipomoea sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.22g) to show their overall association with Ipomoea sp. The
dendrogram shows that Jasminum spp., Aporosa lindleyana, Dichapetalum
zelonioides, Ventilago bombaiensis and Mimusops elengii are the most
closely associated species with Ipomoea sp.
23. Murraya koenigii
Murraya koenigii has come in 26 quadrats of the 2300 quadrats
sampled. These 26 quadrats are from three sites representing two
habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 20 15 76
22 Betta land 3 0 3
21 Betta land 3 0 4
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Quadrats having Murraya koenigii are significantly different from
total quadrats with respect to parameters like PEX, P3M and PTSL.
Figure 4.23b shows that all quadrats having Murraya koenigii come from
the quadrats where PEX is not greater than 10%. Figure 4.23c shows
that Murraya koenigii is coming in quadrats where P3M ranges between
20-100% but proportionately more quadrats having Murraya koenigii are
coming from those quadrats where P3M is between 20-80%. This shows
that Murraya koenigii prefers medium diverse communities of plants
>=2cm dbh. Figure 4.23f shows that quadrats having Murraya koenigii
come from quadrats where PTSL is 0-80% but relatively more where PTSL
is less (0-40%), i.e., where regeneration of trees is relatively less.
Figure 4.23a shows that Murraya koenigii comes in quadrats having
whole range of CC (0-100%), but proportionately more in quadrats where
CC is zero to 90 per cent. Figure 4.23d shows that quadrats having
Murraya koenigii come from quadrats having 0-100% PEVG but relatively
more quadrats having Murraya koenigii come from quadrats where PEVG is
less (0-80%). Figure 4.23e shows that quadrats having Murraya koenigii
come from quadrats where PROP is between 30-100%, i.e., very less to
medium diverse communities of plants <2cm dbh. But proportionately
more quadrats having Murraya koenigii come from quadrats where PROP is
between 30-90%.
Ninety-six species were present in the 26 quadrats in which
Murraya koenigii plants were encountered. Out of 96 species, the 50
species which co-occurred maximum with Murraya koenigii are shown in
a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.23g) to show their overall
association with Murraya koenigii. From the dendrogram, it appears
that Eupatorium odoratum and Eucalyptus spp. are the most closely
associated with Murraya koenigii. Other close associates are Acanthus
spp. Strobilanthes spp. Cassia fistula and Xylia xylocarpa.
24. Ziziphus rugosa
Ziziphus rugosa was encountered in 56 quadrats of the total 2300
quadrats sampled. These 56 quadrats are from 13 sites representing
many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
46 Sandalwood plantation 17 11 15 8
44 Riverside vegetation 13 2 9 7
33 Deciduous forest 5 3 2 0
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 5 3 3 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 4 2 2 0
11 Teak plantation 3 2 1 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 2 2 1 0
22 Betta land 2 0 2 0
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 1 0 0
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0 0
20 Open scrub 1 1 0 0
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 1 0 0
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 1 0 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats having Ziziphus
rugosa are significantly different from the total quadrats with
respect to CC, PEX, PEVG and PTSL. Figure 4.24a shows that quadrats
having Ziziphus rugosa come from quadrats having CC ranging from
0-90%, but majority are concentrated where CC is low to medium
(0-60%). Therefore, Ziziphus rugosa also prefers relatively open
canopied habitats. In open canopied habitats Ziziphus rugosa also is
like shrub or small tree but in habitats where CC is relatively high,
Ziziphus rugosa is a scandent shrub climbing on other trees. Like
Ziziphus oenoplia, Ziziphus rugosa also has no pattern of climbing.
Figure 4.24b shows that the quadrats having Ziziphus rugosa come from
quadrats where PEX ranges from 0-100%, i.e., whole range. Though
majority of the quadrats having Ziziphus rugosa (67%) are from
habitats where PEX is not more than 10% but proportionately more of
them come from quadrats where PEX is high (40-80%). Ziziphus rugosa is
also found more in so called degraded or disturbed habitats. Ziziphus
oenoplia and Ziziphus oenoplia are encountered more because of the
fact that they are thorny. Other plants are more susceptible to
disturbance than such thorny ones. Figure 4.24c shows that quadrats
having Ziziphus rugosa come from quadrats where P3M is between
30-100%. But proportionately more quadrats having Ziziphus rugosa are
from those quadrats where P3M is 30-80%. This means that diversity of
plants >=2cm dbh in the Ziziphus rugosa habitats is low to moderately
high. Figure 4.24d shows that majority of the quadrats having Ziziphus
rugosa come from quadrats where PEVG is low to moderately high
(0-70%), i.e., deciduous to moist deciduous and semievergreen forests
but it also comes occasionally in evergreen forests. Figure 4.24e
shows that quadrats having Ziziphus rugosa come from quadrats where
proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh ranges
between 0-100%, but proportionately more quadrats having Ziziphus
rugosa are from quadrats where proportion of three most abundant plant
species <2cm dbh is between 30-80%. It means that diversity of plants
<2cm dbh in Ziziphus rugosa habitats is very low to very high but
usually low to medium. Figure 4.24f shows that quadrats having
Ziziphus rugosa come from quadrats having PTSL between 0-100%. But
proportionately more quadrats having Ziziphus rugosa are from quadrats
where PTSL is low (0-50%). This means that regeneration of trees is
usually very low and occasionally fair to high in the habitats of
Ziziphus rugosa.
One hundred thirty-five species were present in the 56 quadrats
in which Ziziphus rugosa plants were encountered. Out of 135 species,
the 50 species which co-occurred maximum with Ziziphus rugosa are
shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.24g) to show their
overall association with Ziziphus rugosa. From the dendrogram, it is
clear that Strobilanthes spp., Gymnema sylvestre, Leea indica,
Lagerstroemia speciosa, Grewia tiliaefolia, Schleichera oleosa,
Naregamia alata, Hemidesmus indicus, Curcuma spp., Acanthus spp., and
Dalbergia sisso are the major associates of Ziziphus rugosa.
25. Bambusa arundinacea
Bambusa arundinacea and its relatives were encountered in 69
quadrats of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 69 quadrats are
from seven sites representing six habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
44 Riverside vegetation 20 33 0
33 Deciduous forest 18 22 2
30 Deciduous forest 16 11 13
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 8 13 1
46 Sandalwood plantation 4 5 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 2 1 2
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Bambusa species & its other relatives were encountered in 69
quadrats of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. The results of the KS
test (Table 4.4) show that quadrats having Bambusa species are
significant different from the total quadrats sampled in all the six
parameters. Figure 4.25a shows that bamboos are confined to CC range
of 0-90%. Proportionately more quadrats having Bambusa species are
from less canopied habitats (0-30% CC). Actually in their later life
stages bamboos also produce good CC but the sudden death of the whole
clump after flowering & fruiting results again into canopy opening.
Therefore, a some sort of cycle of canopy opening and recovery goes on
in the habitat of Bambusa species. Figure 4.25b shows that majority
(about 93%) of the quadrats having Bambusa species are from quadrats
where PEX is not more than 10%. In its natural habitat hardly any
exotics come. Even after canopy opening by extraction of Bambusa
species itself or timber, no woody exotics invade. Instead, herbaceous
or shruby exotics invade but again reduce or vanish with recovery of
Bambusa species. Rest of the quadrats where Bambusa species were
encountered are from quadrats where PEX is between 10-80%. These are
from mixed culture plantations of the forest department where PEX
usually dominate. Figure 4.25c shows that Bambusa species have come
only where P3M ranges between 20-100%. But proportionately more
quadrats having Bambusa species are from quadrats where P3M is between
40-90%. It means that diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in Bambusa species
habitat is low to medium. Figure 4.25d shows that Bambusa species come
only where PEVG is not more than 60%. Majority of the quadrats having
Bambusa species are from quadrats where PEVG is not more than 40%.
Figure 4.25e shows that in majority of the quadrats having Bambusa
species the proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh
is 100%, i.e., number of plant species <2cm dbh in those quadrats is
not more than three. But there are also very rare quadrats with
Bambusa species and high diversity of plants <2cm dbh. Figure 4.25f
shows that quadrats having Bambusa species are coming from quadrats
where PTSL ranges from 0-80%. But proportionately more quadrats with
Bambusa species are confined where PTSL is not more than 20%, i.e.,
regeneration of trees is not good in Bambusa species habitats (Bambusa
species dominated quadrats).
One hundred five species were present in the 69 quadrats in which
Bambusa arundinacea and its other relatives were encountered. 37
species had a Jaccard index value of species association with Bambusa
arundinacea and its other relatives not less than 0.05, and are shown
in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.25g) to show their overall
association. The dendrogram shows that Strobilanthes spp., Terminalia
paniculata, Calycopteris floribunda, Naregamia alata, Tectona grandis
and Ervattamia heyneana are the most closely associated species with
Bambusa arundinacea and its other relatives.
26. Emblica officinalis
Emblica officinalis plants were encountered in 14 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 14 quadrats are from six sites
representing six habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
30 Deciduous forest 5 4 1
46 Sandalwood plantation 4 3 1
21 Betta land 2 2 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 1 1 0
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that quadrats having
Emblica officinalis are significantly different from the total
quadrats sampled with respect to proportion of three most abundant
plant species <2cm dbh. Figure 4.26a shows that Emblica officinalis
are found in quadrats where CC ranges from 0-90%. Majority of the
quadrats having Emblica officinalis are from less canopied habitats
(0-50% CC). Figure 4.26b shows that majority (about 71%) of the
quadrats having Emblica officinalis are from quadrats where PEX is not
more than 10%. In its natural habitat usually exotics do not come but
sometimes they are planted by forest department. Figure 4.26c shows
that Emblica officinalis has come only where P3M ranges between
30-100%. But proportionately more quadrats having Emblica officinalis
are from quadrats where P3M is between 30-80%. It means that diversity
of plants >=2cm dbh in Emblica officinalis habitat is low to medium.
Figure 4.26d shows that Emblica officinalis comes from quadrats having
whole range of PEVG. Majority of the quadrats having Emblica
officinalis are from quadrats where PEVG is low. Figure 4.26e shows
that in the quadrats having Emblica officinalis the proportion of
three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is ranging from 60-100%,
i.e., diversity of plant species <2cm dbh in those quadrats is low.
Figure 4.26f shows that quadrats having Emblica officinalis species
are coming from quadrats where PTSL ranges from 0-100%. Majority of
the quadrats with Emblica officinalis are present where PTSL is below
70%. The regeneration of trees is medium to fairly good in the
habitats of Emblica officinalis.
Seventy-one species were present in the 14 quadrats in which
Emblica officinalis plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.26g) to show their overall association with Emblica officinalis. The
dendrogram shows that Terminalia paniculata, Strobilanthes spp., Olea
dioica, Careya arborea, Bambusa arundinacea and Xantolis tomentosa are
the most closely associated species with Emblica officinalis.
27. Citrus sp.
Citrus sp. plants were encountered in 19 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 19 quadrats are from six sites
representing two habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
14 Evergreen forest 13 12 4
27 Evergreen forest 2 1 1
40 Areca garden 1 1 0
12 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
29 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
18 Evergreen forest 1 0 2
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Citrus sp. are significantly different from the total quadrats
in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.27a shows that Citrus sp. prefer more canopied habitats (30-90%),
though they have been recorded from quadrats where CC is as low as 20%
and as high as 100%. Figure 4.27b shows that Citrus sp. are present in
quadrats where the PEX is ranging between 0-80%. Majority of the
quadrats having Citrus sp. have come from quadrats where PEX is not
more than ten per cent. Figure 4.27c shows that though the quadrats
having Citrus sp. come from quadrats where the P3M is between 20-100%,
yet majority of the quadrats having Citrus sp. are from quadrats where
proportion of three most abundant species of plants >=2cm dbh is
between 20-70% range. Figure 4.27d shows that all the quadrats having
Citrus sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is high. Figure 4.27e shows
that all the quadrats having Citrus sp. come from quadrats where the
PROP is between 40-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh
in the habitat of Citrus sp. is low to medium. Figure 4.27f shows that
the quadrats having Citrus sp. come from the quadrats where the PTSL
is ranging between 0-90%, but more quadrats are from the middle to
higher middle ranges.
Eighty species were present in the 19 quadrats in which Citrus
sp. plants were encountered. The 50 species that were more closely
associated with Citrus sp. are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.27g) to show their overall association with Citrus sp. The
dendrogram shows that Piper spp., Pothos scandens, Dimocarpus longan,
Memecylon umbellatum, Neolitsea scorbiculata, Eugenia macrosepala,
Nothopegia colebroobiana, Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Ixora brachiata, Leea
indica, Paramignya monophylla, Holigarna grahami and Aporosa
lindleyana are the most closely associated species with Citrus sp. and
are in one major cluster.
28. Mangifera indica
Mangifera indica was encountered in 42 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 42 quadrats are from 20 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
21 Betta land 5 5 0
14 Evergreen forest 5 4 1
12 Evergreen forest 4 4 0
27 Evergreen forest 3 1 2
18 Evergreen forest 3 3 0
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 3 3 1
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 2 2 0
23 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 2 2 0
16 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
33 Deciduous forest 2 3 0
17 Evergreen forest 1 2 0
20 Open scrub 1 1 0
41 Cashew & Eucalyptus plantation 1 1 0
44 Riverside vegetation 1 1 0
46 Sandalwood plantation 1 1 0
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
22 Betta land 1 1 0
29 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Mangifera indica are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.28a shows that Mangifera indica comes throughout the CC
range, but it is more in higher CC ranges. Figure 4.28b shows that
Mangifera indica is present in quadrats where the PEX is 0-40%.
Majority of the quadrats having Mangifera indica are from quadrats
where the PEX is not more than ten per cent. Figure 4.28c shows that
quadrats having Mangifera indica come from quadrats where the P3M is
between 20-100%, but majority are from the middle range. Figure 4.28d
shows that majority of the quadrats having Mangifera indica are from
quadrats where PEVG is high, though it comes in whole range.
Proportionately more quadrats with Mangifera indica are from
semi-evergreen to evergreen habitats. Figure 4.28e shows that all the
quadrats having Mangifera indica come from quadrats where the PROP is
between 40-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the
habitat of Mangifera indica is low to medium. Figure 4.28f shows that
the quadrats having Mangifera indica come from the quadrats where the
PTSL is ranging from 0-100%, but more quadrats with Mangifera indica
are from higher ranges.
One hundred sixty-eight species were present in the 42 quadrats
in which Mangifera indica plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.28g) to show their overall association with Mangifera indica. The
dendrogram shows that Pothos scandens, Hopea ponga, Knema attenuata,
Gnetum ula, Olea dioica, Ixora brachiata, Psychotria flavida,
Holigarna arnottiana and Canthium parviflorum are the most closely
associated species with Mangifera indica.
29. Garcinia indica
Garcinia indica was encountered in 34 quadrats out of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. These 34 quadrats are from 13 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
22 Betta land 10 11 0
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 6 3 3
37 Open scrub 3 2 1
20 Open scrub 2 1 1
27 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
33 Deciduous forest 2 0 2
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 2 1 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 2 2 0
21 Betta land 1 1 0
23 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
29 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Garcinia indica are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.29a shows that Garcinia indica has come in whole range of the
CC but prefers 40-90% CC. Figure 4.29b shows that Garcinia indica is
present in quadrats only where the PEX is not more than ten per cent.
Figure 4.29c shows that quadrats having Garcinia indica come from
quadrats where the P3M is between 10-100%, but it prefers middle
ranges. Figure 4.29d shows that majority of the quadrats having
Garcinia indica are from quadrats where PEVG is high. It has come in
whole range, but prefers semi-evergreen to evergreen range. Figure
4.29e shows that all the quadrats having Garcinia indica come from
quadrats where the PROP is between 30-100%. It means that diversity
of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Garcinia indica is low to usually
medium and moderately high. Figure 4.29f shows that the quadrats
having Garcinia indica come from the quadrats where the PTSL is
ranging between 0-90%, and preferring 30-80% range.
One hundred forty-eight species were present in the 34 quadrats
in which Garcinia indica plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.29g) to show their overall association with Garcinia indica. The
dendrogram shows that Ixora brachiata, Strobilanthes spp., Olea
dioica, Nothopegia colebrookiana, Pothos scandens, Hopea ponga and
Diospyros candolleana are the most closely associated species with
Garcinia indica and are forming a big cluster along with two more
small clusters of species.
30. Sapindus laurifolius
Sapindus laurifolius was encountered in 75 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 75 quadrats are from 16 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
29 Evergreen forest 15 15 4
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 15 23 17
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 9 5 12
23 Evergreen forest 7 8 0
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 6 9 2
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 5 5 0
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 4 5 0
17 Evergreen forest 4 0 8
33 Deciduous forest 3 2 5
11 Teak plantation 1 1 0
16 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
15 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
22 Betta land 1 1 0
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 1 0 1
18 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
21 Betta land 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Sapindus laurifolius are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.30a shows that Sapindus laurifolius occurs in quadrats having
whole range of CC but is frequent in more canopied quadrats. Figure
4.30b shows that Sapindus laurifolius is present in quadrats where the
PEX is ranging between 0-100%. But majority of the quadrats having
Sapindus laurifolius are from quadrats where PEX is not more than 10
per cent. Figure 4.30c shows that quadrats having Sapindus
laurifolius come from quadrats where the P3M is ranging between
10-100%, but more are from the mid range. Figure 4.30d shows that
majority of the quadrats having Sapindus laurifolius are from quadrats
where PEVG is high (50-100%). It means that Sapindus laurifolius
prefers semi-evergreen to evergreen habitats. Figure 4.30e shows that
all the quadrats having Sapindus laurifolius come from quadrats where
the PROP is between 30-100%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm
dbh in the habitat of Sapindus laurifolius is low to medium and
moderately high. Figure 4.30f shows that all the quadrats having
Sapindus laurifolius come from the quadrats where the PTSL is between
0-100%, but proportionately less quadrats having Sapindus laurifolius
are from lower range.
One hundred sixty-four species were present in the 75 quadrats in
which Sapindus laurifolius plants were encountered. The 50 more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.30g) to show their overall association with Sapindus
laurifolius. The dendrogram shows that Diospyros candolleana, Knema
attenuata, Piper spp., Dichapetalum gelonioides, Olea dioica, Gnetum
ula, Nothopegia colebrookiana, Garcinia gummi-gutta, Hopea ponga,
Psychotria flavida, Artocarpus hirsutus and Mimusops elengii are the
most closely associated species with Sapindus laurifolius.
31. Artocarpus hirsutus
Artocarpus hirsutus plants were encountered in 55 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 55 quadrats are from 12 sites
representing habitat types ranging from pristine evergreen forest to
plantations of Eucalyptus and Acacia in degraded evergreen forest, and
some early degradation stages of evergreen, semi-evergreen forest
(betta lands, disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest). Based on
the frequency of occurrence in various habitats, the order of habitat
preference for Artocarpus hirsutus is given below in a tabular form.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
22 Betta land 17 21 1
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 9 6 5
23 Evergreen forest 6 7 0
16 Evergreen forest 5 8 0
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 4 6 1
17 Evergreen forest 4 4 0
29 Evergreen forest 4 4 1
14 Evergreen forest 2 1 1
21 Betta land 1 1 0
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Artocarpus hirsutus are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.31a shows that Artocarpus hirsutus prefers more canopied
habitats and is almost absent from open canopied habitats (CC <10%).
Evergreen forest, semi-evergreen forest and their early degradation
stages have more CC. Artocarpus hirsutus itself is a very good
evergreen tree giving good CC in its habitat. Figure 4.31b shows that
Artocarpus hirsutus is present only where the PEX is not more than ten
per cent, i.e., it prefers habitats where the PEX is very low (less
disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forests). Figure 4.31c shows
that quadrats having Artocarpus hirsutus come proportionately more
from quadrats where the P3M is 20-60%, i.e., medium diverse
communities of plants >=2cm dbh. Figure 4.31d shows that quadrats
having Artocarpus hirsutus come relatively more from quadrats where
the PEVG is high (60-90%). Figure 4.31e shows that quadrats having
Artocarpus hirsutus come from quadrats where the PROP is between
30-100% but proportionately more quadrats having Artocarpus hirsutus
come from quadrats where PROP is between 40-80%. Again, this shows
that Artocarpus hirsutus prefers medium to less diverse communities of
plants <2cm dbh. Figure 4.31f shows that quadrats having Artocarpus
hirsutus come from the whole range but proportionately more from
quadrats where the PTSL is between 20-90%.
One hundred forty-eight species were present in the 55 quadrats
in which Artocarpus hirsutus plants were encountered. Out of 148
species, the 50 species which co-occurred maximum with Artocarpus
hirsutus are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.31g) to
show their overall association with Artocarpus hirsutus. The
dendrogram shows that Piper spp. and Garcinia gummi-gutta are the most
closely associated with Artocarpus hirsutus. Other close associates
are Knema attenuata, Pothos scandens, Hopea ponga, Diospyros
candolleana, Olea dioica, Nothopegia colebrookiana, Caryota urens,
Mimusops elengii, Garcinia morella, Elaeocarpus serratus, Connarus
wightii, Holigarna arnottiana, and Diospyros buxifolia. These species
are mainly from species rich evergreen, semi-evergreen habitats and
their other degradation stages like betta lands and disturbed
evergreen to semi-evergreen forests.
32. Cinnamomum verum
Cinnamomum verum plants were encountered in 47 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 47 quadrats are from 14 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
---------------------------------------------------------------------
14 Evergreen forest 11 10 5
17 Evergreen forest 9 9 1
22 Betta land 6 6 1
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 3 3 0
18 Evergreen forest 3 2 1
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 3 1 3
21 Betta land 2 1 1
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 2 3 0
23 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
27 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
16 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 1 1 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Cinnamomum verum are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.32a shows that Cinnamomum verum prefers more canopied
habitats. Figure 4.32b shows that all the quadrats having Cinnamomum
verum are from quadrats where the PEX is not more than ten per cent.
Figure 4.32c shows that quadrats having Cinnamomum verum come from
quadrats where the P3M ranges between 10-100%, but majority of them
are from the middle range. Figure 4.32d shows that the quadrats having
Cinnamomum verum are from quadrats where PEVG is between 10-100%, but
preference is for upper middle range (50-90%). Figure 4.32e shows that
the quadrats having Cinnamomum verum come from quadrats where the PROP
is between 30-100%, the preference is for 30-80% range. Figure 4.32f
shows that all the quadrats having Cinnamomum verum come from the
quadrats where the PTSL is ranging from 0-100%, but preference is for
10-80% range.
One hundred thirty-nine species were present in the 47 quadrats
in which Cinnamomum verum plants were encountered. The 50 more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.32g) to show their overall association with Cinnamomum verum. The
dendrogram shows that Piper spp., Pothos scandens, Knema attenuata,
Nothopegia colebrookiana, Canthium parviflorum, Garcinia gummi-gutta,
Garcinia morella, Eugenia macrosepala, Gnetum ula, Connarus wightii,
Ixora spp., Dichapetalum gelonioides, Caryota urens, Calophyllum
polyanthum, Diospyros oocarpa and Casearia tomentosa are the most
closely associated species with Cinnamomum verum.
33. Piper sp. nl (Piper species narrow leaved)
Piper sp. nl plants were encountered in 65 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 65 quadrats are from 12 sites
representing seven habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
29 Evergreen forest 10 15 7
14 Evergreen forest 10 13 5
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 9 10 9
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 7 0 11
16 Evergreen forest 7 10 2
17 Evergreen forest 5 5 3
21 Betta land 4 0 4
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 4 2 4
23 Evergreen forest 3 11 2
22 Betta land 3 2 1
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 2 0 2
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Piper sp. nl are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.33a shows that Piper sp. nl prefers close canopied habitats.
Figure 4.33b shows that Piper sp. nl is present in quadrats only where
the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.33c shows that quadrats having
Piper sp. nl come from quadrats where the P3M is medium. Figure 4.33d
shows that majority of the quadrats having Piper sp. nl are from
quadrats where PEVG is high (50-100%). Figure 4.33e shows that
majority of the quadrats having Piper sp. nl come from quadrats where
the PROP is between 40-80%. Figure 4.33f shows that though the
quadrats having Piper sp. nl come from the quadrats where the PTSL is
ranging between 0-100% yet proportionately more are from middle range.
One hundred fifty-two species were present in the 65 quadrats in
which Piper sp. nl plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.33g) to show their overall association with Piper sp. nl. The
dendrogram shows that Olea dioica, Hopea ponga, Knema attenuata,
Diospyros candolleana, Piper spp. Pothos scandens. Connarus wightii,
Garcinia gummi-gutta, Ixora brachiata, Nothopegia colebrookiana and
Piper sp. bl are the most closely associated species with Piper sp.
nl.
34. Garcinia gummi-gutta
Garcinia gummi-gutta plants were encountered in 243 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 243 quadrats are from 19
sites representing many habitat types.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
17 Evergreen forest 39 44 41
22 Betta land 36 54 24
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 32 24 24
23 Evergreen forest 30 29 19
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 26 41 13
16 Evergreen forest 11 8 4
12 Evergreen forest 10 6 4
21 Betta land 9 9 1
14 Evergreen forest 9 7 4
29 Evergreen forest 9 4 8
27 Evergreen forest 8 3 5
18 Evergreen forest 6 3 5
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 5 1 6
33 Deciduous forest 4 0 7
26 Myristica swamp 3 3 0
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 2 0 6
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 2 0 2
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 1 1 0
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------

The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Garcinia gummi-gutta are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.34a shows that Garcinia gummi-gutta prefers close canopied
habitats. Figure 4.34b shows that almost all the quadrats having
Garcinia gummi-gutta are from quadrats where the PEX is not more than
10%. Figure 4.34c shows that quadrats having Garcinia gummi-gutta come
from quadrats where the P3M is ranging between 20-100%, but majority
of them are from middle range. Figure 4.34d shows that majority of the
quadrats having Garcinia gummi-gutta are from quadrats where PEVG is
high (50-100%), though a few quadrats having Garcinia gumi-gutta are
also from less evergreen quadrats. Figure 4.34e shows that all the
quadrats having Garcinia gummi-gutta come from quadrats where the PROP
is between 30-100%; majority are confined to the middle range. It
means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in the habitat of Garcinia
gummi-gutta is low to moderately high. Figure 4.34f shows that the
quadrats having Garcinia gummi-gutta come from the quadrats where the
PTSL is ranging between 0-100%; but majority are from the middle
range.
Two hundred nineteen species were present in the 243 quadrats in
which Garcinia gummi-gutta plants were encountered. The 50 more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.34g) to show their overall association with Garcinia
gummi-gutta. The dendrogram shows that Hopea ponga, Olea dioica,
Diospyros candolleana, Ixora brachiata, Piper spp., Pothos scandens,
Knema attenuata, and Nothopegia colebrookiana are the most closely
associated species with Garcinia gummi-gutta.
35. Garcinia talbotii
Garcinia talbotii plants were encountered in 30 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 30 quadrats are from only four
sites representing only one habitat type as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
29 Evergreen forest 16 27 1
27 Evergreen forest 7 8 0
14 Evergreen forest 6 5 3
12 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Garcinia talbotii are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.35a shows that Garcinia talbotii also prefers more canopied
habitats. Figure 4.35b shows that Garcinia talbotii is present in
quadrats only where the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.35c shows
that quadrats having Garcinia talbotii come from quadrats where the
P3M is between 10-100%, but proportionately large number of them are
from 30-70% range. Figure 4.35d shows that the quadrats having
Garcinia talbotii are from quadrats only where PEVG is more than 40%.
Figure 4.35e shows that all the quadrats having Garcinia talbotii come
from quadrats where the PROP is above 30%. Figure 4.35f shows that
though the quadrats having Garcinia talbotii come from the quadrats
where the PTSL is ranging from 0-100%, yet it prefers quadrats where
PTSL is high.
Eighty-six species were present in the 30 quadrats in which
Garcinia talbotii plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.35g) to show their overall association with Garcinia talbotii. The
dendrogram shows that Knema attenuata, Dichapetalum gelonioides, Piper
spp., Aglaia sp. scb, Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Leea indica, and Walsura
trifolia are the most closely associated species with Garcinia
talbotii.
36. Garcinia morella
Garcinia morella plants were encountered in 129 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 129 quadrats are from 11 sites
representing four habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
17 Evergreen forest 43 170 12
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 16 19 3
16 Evergreen forest 13 17 1
22 Betta land 12 26 4
29 Evergreen forest 12 12 4
12 Evergreen forest 8 11 2
23 Evergreen forest 7 7 1
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 6 8 0
21 Betta land 6 3 4
14 Evergreen forest 4 2 3
27 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Garcinia morella are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.36a shows that Garcinia morella prefers close canopied
habitat. Figure 4.36b shows that Garcinia morella is present in
quadrats only where the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.36c shows
that quadrats having Garcinia morella come from quadrats where the P3M
ranges between 10-90%, but relatively more are from the middle range.
Figure 4.36d shows that all the quadrats having Garcinia morella are
from quadrats where PEVG is more than 40. Figure 4.36e shows that
majority of the quadrats having Garcinia morella come from quadrats
where the PROP is between 30-80%. Figure 4.36f shows that the
quadrats having Garcinia morella come from the quadrats where the PTSL
is ranging between 0-100% but more are from middle range.
One hundred sixty-seven species were present in the 129 quadrats
in which Garcinia morella plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.36g) to show their overall association with Garcinia morella. The
dendrogram shows that Hopea ponga, Garcinia gimmi-guta, Gnetum ula,
Psychotria flavida, Ixora spp., Piper sp. bl, Calophyllum polyanthum,
Syzygium zeylanicum, Casearia tomentosa, Smilax spp., Holigarna
grahamii, and Calamus spp. are the most closely associated species
with Garcinia morella.
37. Knema attenuata
Knema attenuata plants were encountered in 394 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 394 quadrats are from 17 sites
representing many habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
12 Evergreen forest 50 216 58
18 Evergreen forest 44 88 25
16 Evergreen forest 42 75 37
29 Evergreen forest 38 28 31
27 Evergreen forest 37 62 16
14 Evergreen forest 35 62 19
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 32 40 30
23 Evergreen forest 32 49 34
22 Betta land 23 41 10
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 21 16 17
17 Evergreen forest 17 27 2
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 11 15 5
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 4 0 9
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 2 2 1
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 2 1 1
21 Betta land 2 2 0
26 Myristica swamp 2 1 3
----------------------------------------------------------------------

The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Knema attenuata are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.37a shows that Knema attenuata prefers more close canopied
habitats. Figure 4.37b shows that almost all the quadrats having Knema
attenuata are from quadrats only where the PEX is not more than 10%.
Figure 4.37c shows that majority of the quadrats with Knema attenuata
are confined to the quadrats where the P3M is between 20-70%. Figure
4.37d shows that majority of the quadrats having Knema attenuata are
from quadrats where PEVG is high. Figure 4.37e shows that all the
quadrats having Knema attenuata come from quadrats where the PROP is
between 4-100%. Figure 4.37f shows that the quadrats having Knema
attenuata come from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging between
0-100%, but proportionately more are from higher ranges.
Two hundred twenty species were present in the 394 quadrats in
which Knema attenuata plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.37g) to show their overall association with Knema attenuata. The
dendrogram shows that Pothos scandens, Piper spp., Dichapetalum
gelonioides, Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Connarus wightii, Diospyros
candolleana, and Nothopegia colebrookiana are the most closely
associated species with Knema attenuata.


38. Piper sp. bl (Piper species big leaved)
Piper sp. bl plants were encountered in 111 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 111 quadrats are from 12 sites
representing six habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 30 28 57
18 Evergreen forest 19 38 1
29 Evergreen forest 16 9 18
17 Evergreen forest 16 35 3
14 Evergreen forest 9 13 2
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 7 6 9
16 Evergreen forest 7 8 2
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 2 0 3
23 Evergreen forest 2 1 2
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 1 0 1
27 Evergreen forest 1 0 1
21 Betta land 1 0 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Piper sp. bl are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.38a shows that Piper sp. bl prefers close canopied habitats.
Figure 4.38b shows that Piper sp. bl is present in quadrats only where
the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.38c shows that majority of the
quadrats having Piper sp. bl come from quadrats where the P3M is
20-70%. Figure 4.38d shows that Piper sp. bl prefers more evergreen
habitats. Figure 4.38e shows that all the quadrats having Piper sp. bl
come from quadrats where the PROP is between 20-100%, but more are
from 40-80 range. Figure 4.38f shows that though the quadrats having
Piper sp. bl come from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging from
0-100%, yet proportionately more are from 10-80% range.
One hundred forty-three species were present in the 111 quadrats
in which Piper sp. bl plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.53) to show their overall association with Piper sp. bl. The
dendrogram shows that Knema attenuata, Flacourtia montana,
Strobilanthes spp., Leea indica, Aglaia sp. scb, and Piper sp. nl are
the most closely associated species with Piper sp. bl.
39. Piper sp.
Piper sp. plants were encountered in 371 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 371 quadrats are from 17 sites
representing many habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
18 Evergreen forest 43 11 140
14 Evergreen forest 43 45 143
17 Evergreen forest 39 4 94
23 Evergreen forest 37 45 70
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 34 37 70
22 Betta land 33 43 55
16 Evergreen forest 29 9 66
29 Evergreen forest 26 8 35
21 Betta land 21 24 30
12 Evergreen forest 20 3 46
27 Evergreen forest 17 6 19
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 16 0 27
26 Myristica swamp 7 0 7
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 3 3 1
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 1 0 2
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 1 11 0
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 2 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Piper sp. are significantly different from the total quadrats
in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.39a shows that Piper sp. prefer more canopied habitats. Figure 4.39b
shows that Piper sp. are present only in quadrats where the PEX is not
more than 10%. Figure 4.39c shows that quadrats having Piper sp. come
from quadrats where the P3M is between 10-100%, but proportionately
more are confined to 20-70 range. Figure 4.39d shows that majority of
the quadrats having Piper sp. are from quadrats where PEVG is high
(50-100%). Figure 4.39e shows that proportionately more quadrats
having Piper sp. come from quadrats where the PROP is between 30-80%.
Figure 4.39f shows that proportionately more quadrats having Piper sp.
come from the quadrats where the PTSL is between 10-80%, though it can
come from whole range.
Two hundred thirty-four species were present in the 371 quadrats
in which Piper sp. plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.39g) to show their overall association with Piper sp. The dendrogram
shows that Pothos scandens, Knema attenuata, Dichapetalum gelonioides,
Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Connarus wightii, Hopea ponga, Garcinia
gummi-gutta, Gnetum ula, Olea dioica, Diospyros candolleana,
Nothopegia colebrookiana and Ixora brachiata are the most closely
associated species with Piper sp.
40. Piper sp. tssl (Piper species thin stem, small leaves)
Piper sp. tssl plants were encountered in 21 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 21 quadrats are from seven sites
representing seven habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b c
----------------------------------------------------------------------
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 5 0 6
34 Deciduous to semi-evergreen forest 4 0 8
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 3 0 5
29 Evergreen forest 3 0 4
32 Disturbed evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 3 0 4
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 2 0 2
33 Deciduous forest 1 6 3
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Piper sp. tssl are significantly different from the total
quadrats in five parameters regarding overall distribution. Figure
4.40a shows that Piper sp. tssl prefers close canopied habitats
(0-40%). Figure 4.40b shows that Piper sp. tssl is present only in
quadrats where the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.40c shows that
quadrats having Piper sp. tssl come from quadrats where the P3M is
between 20-100%, but more are from 20-70% range. Figure 4.40d shows
that all the quadrats having Piper sp. tssl are from quadrats where
PEVG is high not less than 50%. Figure 4.40e shows that all the
quadrats having Piper sp. tssl come from quadrats where the PROP is
not less than 40%. Figure 4.40f shows that all the quadrats having
Piper sp. tssl come from the quadrats where the PTSL is up to 80 per
cent.
Ninety-three species were present in the 21 quadrats in which
Piper sp. tssl plants were encountered. Fifty more closely associated
species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.40g) to
show their overall association with Piper sp. tssl. The dendrogram
shows that Olea dioica, Aporosa lindleyana, Holigarna arnottiana,
Psychotria flavida, Strobilanthes spp., Ixora brachiata, Leea indica,
Flacourtia montana, Piper sp. bl and Piper sp. nl are the most closely
associated species with Piper sp. tssl.
41. Zingiber sp.
Zingiber sp. plants were encountered in 27 quadrats out of the
total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 27 quadrats are from seven sites
representing four habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
18 Evergreen forest 7 21
14 Evergreen forest 5 15
45 Eucalyptus plantation in evergreen forest 5 16
16 Evergreen forest 3 14
33 Deciduous forest 3 3
26 Myristica swamp 3 5
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 1 5
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Zingiber species were encountered in 27 quadrats of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show
that quadrats having Zingiber species are significantly different from
the total quadrats sampled in all the six parameters. Figure 4.41a
shows that though the quadrats having Zingiber species are present in
whole range of CC (0-100%) yet majority and proportionately more of
them are from high canopied habitats (40-90% CC). Figure 4.41b shows
that all the quadrats having Zingiber species are from quadrats where
PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.41c shows that Zingiber species
have come only where P3M ranges between 30-100%. But proportionately
more quadrats having Zingiber species are from quadrats where P3M is
between 30-90%. It means that diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in
Zingiber species habitat is low to moderately high. Figure 4.41d shows
that majority and proportionately more quadrats having Zingiber
species come proportionately more in quadrats where PEVG is more
(20-100%). Figure 4.41e shows that in all the quadrats having Zingiber
species proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is
between 40-100%, i.e., diversity of plant species <2cm dbh in those
quadrats is low to medium. Figure 4.41f shows that quadrats having
Zingiber species are coming from quadrats where PTSL ranges from 0
-80%. It means that regeneration of trees is low to fairly high in
Zingiber species habitats.
One hundred two species were present in the 27 quadrats in which
Zingiber plants were encountered. Fifty more closely associated
species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure 4.41g) to
show their overall association with Zingiber. The dendrogram shows
that Pothos scandens, Piper spp., Ixora brachiata, Olea dioica, and
Myristica malabarica are the most closely associated species with
Zingiber.
42. Syzygium hemisphericum
Syzygium hemisphericum plants were encountered in 34 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 34 quadrats are from 12
sites representing seven habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
29 Evergreen forest 7 9 3
26 Myristica swamp 6 15 2
18 Evergreen forest 4 3 1
16 Evergreen forest 4 4 1
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 3 3 1
17 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
14 Evergreen forest 2 0 2
25 Acacia auriculiformis plantation 2 0 2
11 Teak plantation 1 0 1
10 Eucalyptus plantation but now polyculture 1 1 0
33 Deciduous forest 1 1 1
23 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Syzygium hemisphericum are significantly different from the
total quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall
distribution. Figure 4.42a shows that Syzygium hemisphericum prefers
relatively close canopied habitats. Figure 4. 42b shows that most of
the quadrats with Syzygium hemisphericum are from quadrats where the
PEX is very less. Figure 4.42c shows that quadrats having Syzygium
hemisphericum come from quadrats where the P3M is between 10-100%.
Figure 4.42d shows that Syzygium hemisphericum prefers more evergreen
habitats. Figure 4.42e shows that all the quadrats having Syzygium
hemisphericum come from quadrats where the PROP is between 40-100%.
Figure 4.42f shows that Syzygium hemisphericum prefers habitats where
the PTSL is more.
One hundred thirteen species were present in the 34 quadrats in
which Syzygium hemisphericum plants were encountered. Fifty more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.42g) to show their overall association with Syzygium
hemisphericum. The dendrogram shows that Pothos scandens, Piper spp.,
Knema attenuata, Dichapetalum gelonioides, Aglaia sp. scb, Olea
dioica, Gnetum ula, Ventilago bombaiensis, Sapindus laurifolius and
Ixora brachiata are the most closely associated species with Syzygium
hemisphericum.
43. Myristica dactyloides
Myristica dactyloides was encountered in 56 quadrats of the total
2300 quadrats sampled. The 56 quadrats having Myristica dactyloides
are from 10 sites representing four habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 13 18 1
23 Evergreen forest 8 8 0
17 Evergreen forest 7 8 0
27 Evergreen forest 7 7 0
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 6 7 1
12 Evergreen forest 6 9 0
29 Evergreen forest 3 3 0
21 Betta land 3 3 0
16 Evergreen forest 2 2 0
14 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats having Myristica
dactyloides are significantly different from the total quadrats with
respect to all the six parameters. Figure 4.43a shows that majority of
the quadrats having Myristica dactyloides have high CC (40-100%). Very
few plants are also present where CC is low (0-40%). Figure 4.43b
shows that all the quadrats having Myristica dactyloides come from
quadrats where PEX is not more than 10%. In fact, Myristica
dactyloides is plant of relatively undisturbed semievergreen to
evergreen forests where hardly any exotics would ever be able to creep
in. Figure 4.43c shows that quadrats having Myristica dactyloides come
from quadrats where P3M is between 20-100%. But relatively more
quadrats having Myristica dactyloides are from those quadrats where
P3M is 20-70%. This means that diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in the
habitats of Myristica dactyloides is medium to moderately high. Figure
4.43d shows that majority of the quadrats having Myristica dactyloides
have high PEVG (40-100%). This clearly suggests that Myristica
dactyloides is a plant of semievergreen to evergreen habitats. Hardly
any plants of Myristica dactyloides are encountered in habitats where
PEVG is between 0-40%, i.e., deciduous to moist deciduous forests.
Figure 4.43e shows that quadrats having Myristica dactyloides come
from quadrats where proportion of three most abundant plant species
<2cm dbh is between 30-100% but relatively more quadrats having
Myristica dactyloides are from quadrats where proportion of three most
abundant plant species <2cm dbh is between 30-80%. It means that
diversity of plants <2cm dbh in Myristica dactyloides habitats is
medium to moderately high. Figure 4.43f shows that quadrats having
Myristica dactyloides come from quadrats having whole range of PTSL
(0-100%). But proportionately more quadrats having Myristica
dactyloides are from quadrats where PTSL is high (20-100%). This means
that regeneration of trees is fairly good in the habitats of Myristica
dactyloides.
One hundred thirty two species were present in the 56 quadrats in
which Myristica dactyloides plants were encountered. Fifty more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.43g) to show their overall association with Myristica
dactyloides. The dendrogram shows that Knema attenuata, Hopea ponga,
Piper spp., Pothos scandens, Dichapetalum gelonioides, Aglaia
elaeagnoidea, Connarus wightii, Garcinia gummi-gutta, Garcinia
morella, Canthium parviflorum, and Sapindus laurifolius are the most
closely associated species with Myristica dactyloides.
44. Cinnamomum malabathrum
Cinnamomum malabathrum plants were encountered in 50 quadrats out
of the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 50 quadrats are from ten
sites representing six habitat types as listed below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
18 Evergreen forest 18 20 2
27 Evergreen forest 10 5 12
23 Evergreen forest 6 5 1
29 Evergreen forest 4 5 0
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 4 3 4
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 3 2 1
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 2 1 2
12 Evergreen forest 1 1 0
35 Disturbed semi-evergreen forest 1 1 0
22 Betta land 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Cinnamomum malabathrum are significantly different from the
total quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall
distribution. Figure 4.44a shows that Cinnamomum malabathrum prefers
close canopied habitats. Figure 4.44b shows that Cinnamomum
malabathrum is present in quadrats only where the PEX is not more than
10%. Figure 4.44c shows that quadrats having Cinnamomum malabathrum
come from quadrats where the P3M is between 10-100%, but
proportionately more are in the centre. Figure 4.44d shows that though
the quadrats having Cinnamomum malabathrum are from quadrats where
PEVG is ranging between 10-100% yet more are concentrated in the
higher range (60-100%). Figure 4.44e shows that all the quadrats
having Cinnamomum malabathrum come from quadrats where the PROP is
between 40-100%. Figure 4.44f shows that proportionately more quadrats
having Cinnamomum malabathrum come from the quadrats where the PTSL is
more.
One hundred twenty species were present in the 50 quadrats in
which Cinnamomum malabathrum plants were encountered. The 50 more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.44g) to show their overall association with Cinnamomum
malabathrum. The dendrogram shows that Knema attenuata, Pothos
scandens, Aglaia sp. scb, Diospyros oocarpa, Strombosia ceylanica, and
Polyalthia fragrans are the most closely associated species with
Cinnamomum malabathrum.
45. Syzygium gardneri
Syzygium gardneri plants were encountered in 126 quadrats out of
the total 2300 quadrats sampled. These 126 quadrats are from eight
sites representing four habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a b
----------------------------------------------------------------------
18 Evergreen forest 40 75 92
16 Evergreen forest 38 31 346
27 Evergreen forest 29 24 39
12 Evergreen forest 7 1 11
26 Myristica swamp 5 11 2
17 Evergreen forest 4 1 10
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 2 2 0
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 1 1 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The results of the KS test (Table 4.4) show that the quadrats
having Syzygium gardneri are significantly different from the total
quadrats in all the six parameters regarding overall distribution.
Figure 4.45a shows that Syzygium gardneri prefers close canopied
habitats. Figure 4.45b shows that Syzygium gardneri is present in
quadrats only where the PEX is not more than 10%. Figure 4.45c shows
that quadrats having Syzygium gardneri come from quadrats where the
P3M is between 20-100%. Figure 4.45d shows that majority of the
quadrats having Syzygium gardneri are from quadrats where PEVG is high
(40-100%). Figure 4.45e shows that all the quadrats having Syzygium
gardneri come from quadrats where the PROP is more than 40%. Figure
4.45f shows that though the quadrats having Syzygium gardneri come
from the quadrats where the PTSL is ranging between 0-100% yet more
are from higher range (40-100%).
One hundred forty-two species were present in the 126 quadrats in
which Syzygium gardneri plants were encountered. Fifty more closely
associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram (Figure
4.45) to show their overall association with Syzygium gardneri. The
dendrogram shows that Smilax spp., Pothos scandens, Knema attenuata,
Piper spp., Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Eugenia macrosepala, Reissantia
grahami, Connarus wightii and Calophyllum polyanthum are the most
closely associated species with Syzygium gardneri.
46. Myristica malabarica
Myristica malabarica was present in 47 quadrats of the total 2300
quadrats sampled. The 47 quadrats having Myristica malabarica are from
12 sites representing 5 habitat types as given below.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sites Habitat type n a
----------------------------------------------------------------------
23 Evergreen forest 9 9
18 Evergreen forest 8 9
12 Evergreen forest 5 7
31 Evergreen to semi-evergreen forest 5 5
17 Evergreen forest 4 6
24 Myristica swamp plus evergreen forest 4 5
38 Disturbed evergreen forest with cut 4 5
29 Evergreen forest 3 4
16 Evergreen forest 2 2
26 Myristica swamp 1 1
14 Evergreen forest 1 1
27 Evergreen forest 1 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
The above table shows that nowhere Myristica malabarica plants
below 2 cm DBH were encountered in the 1x1m quadrats, though Myristica
malabarica plants above 2 cm DBH were there. Regeneration of this
species seems to be much hampered. This seems to be because of
collection of its fruits by people from wild. Even branches are also
lopped to collect its fruits. This is a danger signal that needs to be
investigated properly. The KS test (Table 4.4) shows that quadrats
having Myristica malabarica are significantly different from the total
quadrats with respect to all the six parameters. Figure 4.46a shows
that the quadrats having Myristica malabarica have 30-100% CC.
Proportionately more quadrats are from 80-100% CC range. Figure 4.46b
shows that all the quadrats having Myristica malabarica come from
quadrats where PEX is not more than 10%. Myristica malabarica is plant
of less disturbed to undisturbed semievergreen to evergreen forests
where hardly any exotics are seen. Figure 4.46c shows that quadrats
having Myristica malabarica come from quadrats where P3M is between
20-100%. But relatively more quadrats having Myristica malabarica are
from those quadrats where P3M is between 20-80%. This means that
diversity of plants >=2cm dbh in the Myristica malabarica habitats is
medium to moderately high. Figure 4.46d shows that majority of the
quadrats having Myristica malabarica have high PEVG (50-100%), but it
can come in habitats where PEVG is as low as 10%, i.e., moist
deciduous forests. This suggests that Myristica malabarica prefers
semievergreen to evergreen habitats. Figure 4.46e shows that quadrats
having Myristica malabarica come from quadrats where proportion of
three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is between 40-100%, but
relatively more quadrats having Myristica malabarica are from quadrats
where proportion of three most abundant plant species <2cm dbh is
between 40-80%. It means that diversity of plants <2cm dbh in
Myristica malabarica habitats is low to medium. Figure 4.46f shows
that quadrats having Myristica malabarica come from quadrats having
whole range of PTSL (0-100%). But proportionately more quadrats having
Myristica malabarica are from quadrats where PTSL is high (10-100%).
This means that regeneration of trees is fairly good in the habitats
of Myristica malabarica.
One hundred thirty species were present in the 47 quadrats in
which Myristica malabarica plants were encountered. The 50 more
closely associated species are shown in a complete linkage dendrogram
(Figure 4.46g) to show their overall association with Myristica
malabarica. The dendrogram shows that Knema attenuata, Piper spp.,
Dichapetalum gelonioides, Garcinia gummi-gutta, Gnetum ula, Eugenia
macrosepala, Olea dioica, Caryota urens, Pothos scandens, Syzygium
gardneri, Calophyllum polyanthum, Strombosia ceylanica, and Diospyros
malabarica are the most closely associated species with Myristica
malabarica.
47. Gymnacranthera canarica
48. Myristica fatua
49. Pinanga dicksonii
50. Piper hookeri
(For last four species please see chapter 7).