Cleaner Production & Waste Management


on the International scientific-practical conference on "CLEANER PRODUCTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT " HELD AT DNEPROPETROVSK, UKRAINE from the 17th to 20th September 1996.

In the recent conference held at Dnepropetrovsk, more than 200 people attended including 18 from industrial and commercial enterprises, 36 from scientific, educational and design organisations, there were also 21 representatives from 12 other cities in the Ukraine as well as 2 from Great Britain, 1 from Belgium, 2 from the Czech Republic and 3 from Russia. The mass media was represented by 6 newspapers and 5 radio stations.

The organisers of the conference were the Pridneprovie Ecological Foundation (PEF), Pridneprovie Centre for Cleaner Production (PSEIC) , Eureng Limited from Great Britain, Dnepropetrovsk Municipality, State Management of Ecological Safety in the Dnepropetrovsk Region, Dnepropetrovsk Regional Branch of Ecological Academy of Sciences, Ecoprom UG, State Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Scientific Research Institute Energoprom, Institute of Natural Resources and Ecology under the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Pridneprovie Scientific centre under the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk House of Scientists and Lubnyfarm Co.

The conference has identified possible solutions to ecological problems in metallurgical, chemical, machine building and the energy industries. The exchange of views has contributed into broadening the understanding of problems experienced in the field of industrial technologies and ecology.

A total of 16 reports were presented at the plenary sessions of the conference, additionally a number of reports were presented at section sessions.

Section 1. Resource-saving, minimal waste and waste-free technologies - 22 reports.

Section 2. Rational use of natural resources and recycling - 14 reports.

Section 3. Neutralisation, processing and salvaging of solid and liquid waste - 20 reports.

Section 4. Ecological problems of the energy industry. Technologies and equipment for cleaning gaseous pollution - 10 reports.

As a result of the section sessions, 23 reports were recommended to be submitted for publication in "Journal of Cleaner Production" and "Waste Management".

The participants of the conference were introduced to the first Ukrainian Centre of Medical and Ecological Adaptation of Men, which has developed the programme for rehabilitation of the population in the conditions of high technogenic load.

The conference participants were introduced to the Pridneprovie Heat and Power plant where they examined 4 projects for utilisation of operational waste generated by the plant. Two of these projects were recommended for practical implementation (Projects submitted by the Mining Academy of Ukraine and Pridneprovie Academy of Constructions and Architecture). In addition to this visit the participants were also introduced to the Domestic Waste Thermal Processing plant where they learned about the existing technology and shared their views on the problem of utilisation of domestic waste.

At the final plenary session two programmes were presented, these were "Clean Air to the City" and "Adaptation and rehabilitation of inhabitants of Dnepropetrovsk to adverse technogenic effects". Within the framework of this presentation the participants learned about natural products with immunogenic and adaptorgenic properties which are produced by Ukrainian enterprises. Furthermore the participants of the conference were introduced to the journals "Cleaner Production" and "Waste Management". At the end of the session the conference participants analysed the results of the conference and formed the conference decision.


The scale of environmental pollution in a number of regions in the Ukraine has reached a critical level. The major contributors to this problem are the energy industry, metallurgy and transport. The intensive pollution of water reservoirs is continuing. Compared to other regions in the former Soviet Union, Pridneprovie region suffers the most from river pollution and water deficiency. This is not solely because of the Chernobyl incident but can be attributed to the major industrial and agricultural environments in the area combined with the developed energy industry of which an adverse impact cannot be underestimated.

Ukraine has the largest volumes of accumulated industrial waste in the world. Out of 1.4 - 1.5 billion tons of natural resources used for industrial manufacture annually, the largest part of it is transformed to waste. Annually, Ukraine generates 0.9 - 1.0 billion tons of solid waste and their total volume exceeds 15 billion tons and covers 130,000 hectares.

The density of waste disposal in some regions, in particular Donetsk-Pridneprovie region, amounts to 8-18 thousand tons per km2, whereas the average density in the Ukraine is 3,000 tons per km2.

In the conditions of deep economic crisis in the Ukraine there is a need to solve both economic and ecological problems simultaneously, following an integral strategy for ecologisation of the economy. This envisages the upgrading of industrial enterprises which are actual or potential sources of pollution.

Ecologisation is understood as a strategy for reconstructing industry and agriculture with the purpose of combining satisfaction of man's needs with the improvement of ecological conditions. The main principle of ecologisation lies in the system approach which envisages improvement of natural and technical systems at all levels of hierarchy: from sources of pollution to consumers taking into account the interaction of all the composing parts.

Ecologisation of economy is the policy accepted throughout the world in economy management. This policy requires a change of priorities in the sphere of investments, environmental training and education of staff, especially at management level, developing the environmental market and integration with the world environmental community. It is at last legislative policy which encourages industrialists to implement more ecological views and which favours enterprises involved in bringing environmental improvements into their production.

Waste processing should become an integral part of ecologisation at a regional level and should be introduced taking into account specific requirements of an enterprise.

When making a decision on investment policy it is important to take into consideration all environmental and economic aspects of a problem, as the resources can be invested either into upgrading technological processes with the purpose of reducing waste output or processing waste.

The conference indicated that the problem of waste should be considered from three standpoints:

1. Wastes as a factor of deterioration of natural environment and man's health. In this regard the key strategy is to minimise the volume of waste.

2. Wastes as a source of secondary raw materials and industrial products. This area requires complex processing of wastes and complete account of useful components which can result from waste processing. Here the main attention is paid to examining composition of waste and developing technologies for deep processing of waste. So far in majority of cases waste processing involves low level technologies for production of simple, for instance building, materials.

3. Wastes as a factor of trade and exchange in conditions of shortages of raw materials. This can lead to creating territorial industrial complexes based on interindustry principle when waste arising from one industry can become raw material for another one.

The conference concluded that the main tasks in waste processing include:

1. Inventory and complete evaluation of waste; development of problem-orientated waste classifications.

2. Development of technological chains and high technologies for deep processing of wastes with minimisation of end waste.

3. Provision of environmental safety in waste processing . Development of a strategy for solving the problem of waste which would encourage enterprises to implement low-waste and waste-free production technologies or process accumulated wastes.

The conference believes that the main solution to the problem of waste in Pridneprovie is not in neutralisation or burial of wastes, but in their utilisation and recuperation through interindustry co-operation. Joint consideration of chemical, metallurgical, machine-building and energy-producing technologies will result in their further development and finding new technical approaches.

It should be noted that a number of technical solutions presented at the conference were ready for industrial implementation. However, very often the proposed measures are not backed with proper economic evaluation or a business plan.

The conference stresses the importance of international co-operation in solving environmental problems and draws attention to the active position of the British company "Eureng Ltd" in the Ukraine.

The conference decisions include:

1. To consider ecologisation of both actual and potential sources of environmental pollution on the basis of system approach as a strategic direction in solving environmental problems. Particular attention should be paid to low-waste, waste-free and resource-saving technologies. It should be stressed that the main solution to the problem of waste in Pridneprovie is not in neutralisation or burial of wastes, but in their utilisation and recuperation through interindustry co-operation.

2. To recommend to the State Bodies on Environmental Affairs to take into account results of scientific researches when developing priorities for investments into nature-protecting projects.

3. To recommend development of a monitoring system for industrial waste as an integral part of an overall environmental monitoring system "Pridneprovie".

To use cytogenetic criterion developed by the IPPE of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for:

- complex diagnosis of pressure levels from toxic and harmful wastes on natural and man-made ecosystems;

- conducting ecological expertise on existing and developing technologies for neutralisation and utilisation of industrial waste;

- evaluation of effectiveness of measures directed to soil recultivation and restoration of soil fertility.

4. To second the initiative on creating local regional centres for complex processing of waste in Dnepropetrovsk.

5. To consider expedient investments both into renewable (solar) energy researches and developments of pilot resource-saving energy systems with their practical testing in Pridneprovie region and Balaklava area of Sevastopol.

6. To support offers from the institute "DneprNIPIenergoprom" and companies "Fakel" and "Ozon", the Pridneprovie Heat and Power Plant. To request the Dnepropetrovsk Municipal Department on Ecology and GAEK "Dneprenergo" to identify funding for further development and industrial implementation of a pilot gas-cleaning facility on of the energy units of the plant.

7. To consider expedient to conduct the conference "Cleaner Production and Waste Management" every two-three years. To invite to these conferences a broad circle of private and public enterprises and potential investors.

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