Cleaner Production & Waste Management
on the International scientific-practical conference on
"CLEANER PRODUCTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT "
HELD AT DNEPROPETROVSK, UKRAINE
from the 17th to 20th September 1996.
In the recent conference held at Dnepropetrovsk, more than 200
people attended including 18 from industrial and commercial
enterprises, 36 from scientific, educational and design
organisations, there were also 21 representatives from 12 other
cities in the Ukraine as well as 2 from Great Britain, 1 from
Belgium, 2 from the Czech Republic and 3 from Russia. The mass
media was represented by 6 newspapers and 5 radio stations.
The organisers of the conference were the Pridneprovie
Ecological Foundation (PEF), Pridneprovie Centre for Cleaner
Production (PSEIC) , Eureng Limited from Great Britain,
Dnepropetrovsk Municipality, State Management of Ecological
Safety in the Dnepropetrovsk Region, Dnepropetrovsk Regional
Branch of Ecological Academy of Sciences, Ecoprom UG, State
Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk Scientific
Research Institute Energoprom, Institute of Natural Resources and
Ecology under the National Academy of Science of Ukraine,
Pridneprovie Scientific centre under the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk House of Scientists and
The conference has identified possible solutions to ecological
problems in metallurgical, chemical, machine building and the
energy industries. The exchange of views has contributed into
broadening the understanding of problems experienced in the field
of industrial technologies and ecology.
A total of 16 reports were presented at the plenary sessions
of the conference, additionally a number of reports were
presented at section sessions.
Section 1. Resource-saving, minimal waste and waste-free
technologies - 22 reports.
Section 2. Rational use of natural resources and recycling - 14
Section 3. Neutralisation, processing and salvaging of solid and
liquid waste - 20 reports.
Section 4. Ecological problems of the energy industry.
Technologies and equipment for cleaning gaseous pollution - 10
As a result of the section sessions, 23 reports were
recommended to be submitted for publication in "Journal of
Cleaner Production" and "Waste Management".
The participants of the conference were introduced to the
first Ukrainian Centre of Medical and Ecological Adaptation of
Men, which has developed the programme for rehabilitation of the
population in the conditions of high technogenic load.
The conference participants were introduced to the
Pridneprovie Heat and Power plant where they examined 4 projects
for utilisation of operational waste generated by the plant. Two
of these projects were recommended for practical implementation
(Projects submitted by the Mining Academy of Ukraine and
Pridneprovie Academy of Constructions and Architecture). In
addition to this visit the participants were also introduced to
the Domestic Waste Thermal Processing plant where they learned
about the existing technology and shared their views on the
problem of utilisation of domestic waste.
At the final plenary session two programmes were presented,
these were "Clean Air to the City" and "Adaptation and
rehabilitation of inhabitants of Dnepropetrovsk to adverse
technogenic effects". Within the framework of this presentation
the participants learned about natural products with immunogenic
and adaptorgenic properties which are produced by Ukrainian
enterprises. Furthermore the participants of the conference were
introduced to the journals "Cleaner Production" and "Waste
Management". At the end of the session the conference
participants analysed the results of the conference and formed
the conference decision.
OF THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL CONFERENCE
"CLEANER PRODUCTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT"
DNEPROPETROVSK, UKRAINE, SEPTEMBER 19TH 1996.
The scale of environmental pollution in a number of regions in
the Ukraine has reached a critical level. The major contributors
to this problem are the energy industry, metallurgy and
transport. The intensive pollution of water reservoirs is
continuing. Compared to other regions in the former Soviet Union,
Pridneprovie region suffers the most from river pollution and
water deficiency. This is not solely because of the Chernobyl
incident but can be attributed to the major industrial and
agricultural environments in the area combined with the developed
energy industry of which an adverse impact cannot be
Ukraine has the largest volumes of accumulated industrial
waste in the world. Out of 1.4 - 1.5 billion tons of natural
resources used for industrial manufacture annually, the largest
part of it is transformed to waste. Annually, Ukraine generates
0.9 - 1.0 billion tons of solid waste and their total volume
exceeds 15 billion tons and covers 130,000 hectares.
The density of waste disposal in some regions, in particular
Donetsk-Pridneprovie region, amounts to 8-18 thousand tons per
km2, whereas the average density in the Ukraine is 3,000 tons per
In the conditions of deep economic crisis in the Ukraine there
is a need to solve both economic and ecological problems
simultaneously, following an integral strategy for ecologisation
of the economy. This envisages the upgrading of industrial
enterprises which are actual or potential sources of pollution.
Ecologisation is understood as a strategy for reconstructing
industry and agriculture with the purpose of combining
satisfaction of man's needs with the improvement of ecological
conditions. The main principle of ecologisation lies in the
system approach which envisages improvement of natural and
technical systems at all levels of hierarchy: from sources of
pollution to consumers taking into account the interaction of all
the composing parts.
Ecologisation of economy is the policy accepted throughout the
world in economy management. This policy requires a change of
priorities in the sphere of investments, environmental training
and education of staff, especially at management level,
developing the environmental market and integration with the
world environmental community. It is at last legislative policy
which encourages industrialists to implement more ecological
views and which favours enterprises involved in bringing
environmental improvements into their production.
Waste processing should become an integral part of
ecologisation at a regional level and should be introduced taking
into account specific requirements of an enterprise.
When making a decision on investment policy it is important to
take into consideration all environmental and economic aspects of
a problem, as the resources can be invested either into upgrading
technological processes with the purpose of reducing waste output
or processing waste.
The conference indicated that the problem of waste should be
considered from three standpoints:
1. Wastes as a factor of deterioration of natural environment and
man's health. In this regard the key strategy is to minimise the
volume of waste.
2. Wastes as a source of secondary raw materials and industrial
products. This area requires complex processing of wastes and
complete account of useful components which can result from waste
processing. Here the main attention is paid to examining
composition of waste and developing technologies for deep
processing of waste. So far in majority of cases waste processing
involves low level technologies for production of simple, for
instance building, materials.
3. Wastes as a factor of trade and exchange in conditions of
shortages of raw materials. This can lead to creating territorial
industrial complexes based on interindustry principle when waste
arising from one industry can become raw material for another
The conference concluded that the main tasks in waste
1. Inventory and complete evaluation of waste; development of
problem-orientated waste classifications.
2. Development of technological chains and high technologies for
deep processing of wastes with minimisation of end waste.
3. Provision of environmental safety in waste processing .
Development of a strategy for solving the problem of waste which
would encourage enterprises to implement low-waste and waste-free
production technologies or process accumulated wastes.
The conference believes that the main solution to the problem
of waste in Pridneprovie is not in neutralisation or burial of
wastes, but in their utilisation and recuperation through
interindustry co-operation. Joint consideration of chemical,
metallurgical, machine-building and energy-producing technologies
will result in their further development and finding new
It should be noted that a number of technical solutions
presented at the conference were ready for industrial
implementation. However, very often the proposed measures are not
backed with proper economic evaluation or a business plan.
The conference stresses the importance of international
co-operation in solving environmental problems and draws
attention to the active position of the British company "Eureng
Ltd" in the Ukraine.
The conference decisions include:
1. To consider ecologisation of both actual and potential sources
of environmental pollution on the basis of system approach as a
strategic direction in solving environmental problems. Particular
attention should be paid to low-waste, waste-free and
resource-saving technologies. It should be stressed that the main
solution to the problem of waste in Pridneprovie is not in
neutralisation or burial of wastes, but in their utilisation and
recuperation through interindustry co-operation.
2. To recommend to the State Bodies on Environmental Affairs to
take into account results of scientific researches when
developing priorities for investments into nature-protecting
3. To recommend development of a monitoring system for industrial
waste as an integral part of an overall environmental monitoring
To use cytogenetic criterion developed by the IPPE of the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for:
- complex diagnosis of pressure levels from toxic and harmful
wastes on natural and man-made ecosystems;
- conducting ecological expertise on existing and developing
technologies for neutralisation and utilisation of industrial
- evaluation of effectiveness of measures directed to soil
recultivation and restoration of soil fertility.
4. To second the initiative on creating local regional centres
for complex processing of waste in Dnepropetrovsk.
5. To consider expedient investments both into renewable (solar)
energy researches and developments of pilot resource-saving
energy systems with their practical testing in Pridneprovie
region and Balaklava area of Sevastopol.
6. To support offers from the institute "DneprNIPIenergoprom" and
companies "Fakel" and "Ozon", the Pridneprovie Heat and Power
Plant. To request the Dnepropetrovsk Municipal Department on
Ecology and GAEK "Dneprenergo" to identify funding for further
development and industrial implementation of a pilot gas-cleaning
facility on of the energy units of the plant.
7. To consider expedient to conduct the conference "Cleaner
Production and Waste Management" every two-three years. To invite
to these conferences a broad circle of private and public
enterprises and potential investors.