News at SEVEn #3/96


Volume 4 Number 3 August 1996


Read Me:

Heat-Cost Allocators: Pros and Cons
M=F6venpick Saves Energy
History of Labeling Domestic Electrical Appliances in the Czech
Easy Connection to SEVEn
Support for Energy Service Companies
What Influences the Price of Heat ?
The Energy Efficiency Business Week '96 Conference and Exhibition
News from the Czech Energy Agency
Energy Planning in Austria
Total Energy Balance and GDP for the Period 1990 - 1995
Power Smart Offers Cooperation
Energy Efficiency Taught in Schools
Company Close Up
Energy Efficiency Events in and about Central and Eastern Europe

Heat-Cost Allocators: Pros and Cons

At the beginning of the 1990s, in accordance with Decree 186/91, all buildings heated by district heating were outfitted with heat metering at the foot of the building and with individual metering of hot-water consumption in individual apartments. A wide-ranging discussion developed on the installation of heat-cost allocators in apartments. One of the primary disadvantages of heat-cost allocators is the fact that building constructions and central heating do not make it possible to precisely meter the consumption of heat consumed in a single apartment. One of the main advantages is the bigger incentive of consumers to conduct themselves in an economical fashion - the heating bills will be different for different apartments, and this will reflect the behavior of tenants to a certain degree.

According to research by SEVEn, there was an average decrease in heat consumption by 10 to 15% after the installation of heat-cost allocators. At the same time, heat consumption in otherwise comparable apartments differed by as much as threefold. As a result, "neighbor heating," that is, a situation where one apartment heats a neighboring one that has its heat radiator turned off, thereby also paying for its heat, became an issue of concern.

In response to this, SEVEn, in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Engineering at the Czech Technical University's Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, tested the effect of the following four factors that most frequently influence heat consumption in apartments:

=B7 overheating the apartment from 20=B0C to 24=B0C

=B7 heating the neighboring apartment (an apartment sharing two-thirds of one side wall is not heated)

=B7 excessive continuous ventilation (always leaving a ventilation window open)

=B7 the position of the apartment (comparing the consumption of an upper-floor corner apartment with that of an apartment in the middle of the building)

A dynamic simulation on an ESP-r computer model that is used by the Czech Technical University showed that the effect of one continuously open ventilation window in the apartment, which is still a common occurrence in our housing developments, increases heat consumption (and thereby also the heating bill) by more than 60%. The second most common factor, overheating the apartment by 4=B0C, increases consumption by almost 30%. This confirmes the well-known simplified rule that overheating an apartment by 1=B0C will increase heat consumption by 6%. According to the more precise dynamic simulation, the increase is even more than 7%. The effect of the neighboring apartment with its radiators turned off likewise increases heat consumption and heating expenses. However, the research showed that the effect of this is only 11% and is thus comparable in scale to the effect of a mistake in metering. Of all the analyzed factors, the location of the apartment in the building has the biggest effect on heat consumption. The upper-floor corner apartment consumes more then twice as much heat as the apartment in the middle of the building neighboring heated apartments. However, according to Decree 245/91, the heat billing method eliminates the effect of the apartment's position by using correctional coefficients to equalize heating payments in otherwise similar apartments with similar heating patterns. The results of the simulation are summarized in the graph.

Data from the graph:
  Reference Apartment ...................	100%
  Overheating ...........................	129%
  Heating Pattern of Neighbor ...........	111%
  Continuous Ventilation ................	162%
  Outer Apartment on Upper Floor ........	217%

The research and calculations showed that the installation of heat-cost allocators represents an effective means to increase the incentive of tenants to behave in an economical fashion and makes it possible to reduce heating expenses without taking away living comfort. It was even demonstrated that the act of paying heating bills based on heat-cost allocators further increases the incentive of tenants, and in the second year after the installation there were even greater heat savings than in the first year. And this despite the fact that heat-cost allocation is not entirely precise and by itself it does not reduce the heat losses of buildings.

It is good to keep in mind that the problem cannot be totally solved by the installation of heat-cost allocators alone. However, it is a good way to induce economic behavior and thereby contribute to energy savings in places where quality heat controls have already been installed in apartments and where the hydraulic balance of the heating system has been properly adjusted.

Contact: Tereza Dunovsk=E1, Miroslav Vot=E1pek, Ji=F8=ED Zeman, SEVEn


M=F6venpick Saves Energy

On Tuesday, 11 June 1996, the hotel group of the Swiss concern M=F6venpick officially assumed the management of its new 436-room hotel. The Prague complex is composed of two buildings, one of which is at the base and the other on the summit of the hill Mr=E1zkova nad Sm=EDchovem. The 100-meter distance between buildings is bridged by a funicular railway. The entire project cost 670 million Austrian shillings.

Examples of energy saving can be found everywhere. When a guest leaves his or her room, the magnetic card that locks the doors automatically turns out the lights in the room as well. "The building is interlarded with electronic technology; the most modern appliances are here," stated Mr. J=FCrgen Kazmaier, the general director of the Prague hotel M=F6venpick. "Energy saving is only one of the aspects of our global environmental thinking."

"The half of the energy savings are gained through recuperation," said Ji=F8=ED Balcar from Scheu&Wirt, Prague. On the television monitoring panel in the control center there was a plan on which sensors noted the external temperature of 25=B0C and the activity of the rotating multi-plate ALCO recuperator with an efficiency level of 85-90%.

"In places where it is necessary to proceed differently according to hygienic norms, for example, in the kitchen, we use a cross recuperator that conveys heat through walls with 60% efficiency," explains Mr. Balcar. "The remaining heat in the food-cooling units is used again to heat water to 55-60=B0C for kitchen operation and to 43-46=B0C for rooms."

With the help of the recuperator, a constant temperature is maintained in the above-ground cellars with almost no input. Recuperation also functions in the winter as heating.

"The firm ALCO GmbH Aerotech supplied the base units. The was necessary for reasons of timing. Czech firms supplied the remaining material. It can be said that Czech firms are capable of successfully competing abroad and that they can provide very good service on equipment produced by global firms," asserted Mr. Balcar in regard to the firm which M=F6venpick engaged to maintain the ventilation system in its newest hotel, which is the biggest in its entire chain and its first in Central and Eastern Europe.

Contact: Ji=F8=ED Balcar, Scheu & Wirt Prague, Tel.: +42-2-353114


History of Labeling Domestic Electrical Appliances in the Czech Republic

Energy labels explicitly indicate the energy consumption of electrical appliances. They contribute to better energy use by providing customers with basic information on energy consumption and can thereby influence their decision-making process in favor of more energy-efficient appliances. They can also induce the producer to pay proper attention to the energy efficiency level of his or her products.

The start of labeling activity in this country dates back to 1992, when SEVEn bought a sample of nine combined single-circuit compressor refrigerators of medium size that were commonly available on the market at that time. SEVEn had them tested at the Technical Testing Laboratory in Pie=9A=9Dany. The goal was to get the first reliable data on their energy consumption as a basis for preparing energy labels. The tested refrigerators with energy labels were then displayed in the Prague's largest department store Kotva.

In 1993, more activity followed. =C8EZ joined in within the framework of preparing DSM programs. This time, 14 automatic washing machines were purchased and the Electrotechnical Testing Laboratory in Prague executed comprehensive tests on them. On the basis of measured energy consumption, energy labels were proposed.

Another activity related to labeling was oriented towards electric water heaters for households. =C8EZ again secured financing for the activity, and the measuring was carried out at the Technical Testing Laboratory in Pie=9A=9Dany. The evaluated test results were available in spring 1996. While preparing the label for boilers, a design valid in the EU was strictly adhered to in regard to dimensions, colors, and data structure. As a determining criterion in judging energy efficiency, a specialist committee comprising representatives from =C8EZ, Ministry of Industry, SEI, SEVEn, and VUPEK accepted a heat-loss size for 24 hours computed on the basis of a liter of actual volume. As additional information, the rated interior capacity, the heating time, and the electricity consumption in heating the contents from 15=B0C to 65=B0C are given on the labels.

Further tests on so-called "wet appliances," specifically clothing dryers and dishwashers, followed during the fall of last year. The reason for choosing these appliances in particular was their relatively high potential for future sales. All of the above efforts should culminate in the creation of legislative regulations establishing the obligation for relevant parties (for example, domestic suppliers) to specify the energy requirements of their appliances in a standardized fashion. At the present time, on the basis of experience gained during the past years and knowledge of development in the European Union, SEVEn is preparing for the Ministry of Industry and Trade legislation pertaining to labels in the scope of the energy-management law under preparation.

The results of tests on individual appliances were published, for example, in the magazine D-test in July 1993 and May 1994 and in the form of flyers circulated to =C8EZ information centers.

Contact: Vladim=EDr Proch=E1zka, SEVEn


Easy Connection to SEVEn

Now you will easily remember our new, simplified Web address:

ECN stands for Econnect, our nonprofit Internet provider, and Econnect stands for Easy Connection. Our e-mail address remains the same:


Support for Energy Service Companies

In the second half of November, the first training of selected Czech companies interested in new methods of doing business in the field of energy efficiency will take place near Prague. The goal of the training is to provide interested domestic parties with sufficient, work-based experience in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) and to facilitate the development of business activity in the field of energy services. The week-long course is being arranged in the framework of the PHARE program by the firm PEL (Great Britain), in cooperation with AF Energikonsult (Sweden), SEVEn, and other domestic experts. After completing the course, the trained domestic firms will be capable of concluding their first energy performance contracts. The basis of EPC is to offer complete service packages to reduce energy consumption. These packages include the installation of equipment, financing, and servicing. The customer repays the project expenses from actual saved energy costs. The course is intended for firms that have experience with energy audits, concluding standard supply contracts, and project financing. A necessary condition for taking part in the training will be the serious intention of the firm to expand its business activities to the energy service field through EPC.

For further information on training, please contact: Miroslav Vot=E1pek, SEVEn, tel: +42-2-2424 7552


What Influences the Price of Heat ?

State subsidies for constructing heat-generating plants and their distribution systems reduce the price of heat, though to a lesser degree than at first appears. A poorly made feasibility study that overestimates actual heat consumption can have an opposite - and significant - effect on increasing the actual price of heat in relation to the forecast one.

State support for building and reconstructing district heating systems covering 80% of total investment costs (comprising a 40% subsidy on investment and a 40% interest-free loan) will reduce the price of heat for consumers by less than one-fourth.

However, the quality of the heat-consumption analysis can have a much bigger effect on the actual price of heat than state subsidies. In the analyzed case, because of an overestimation of heat consumption, the price of heat will increase by almost one-half over the planned price! This augmentation was caused by the fact that in reality less heat will be sold than was planned.

Effect of Subsidies and Poor Demand Analyses on the Price of Heat

State support (40% subsidies, 40% interest-free loans) can reduce the heat price= by - 23%

Overestimating heat sales can increase the heat price by + 45%

Heat consumption was originally calculated on the basis of fuel consumed and the optimal efficiency level of boilers; this, however, did not reflect the actual technical state of the equipment and their mode of operation. Heat consumption was thus overestimated by 50%.

These data come from an economic analysis of an actual heat-supply project carried out by SEVEn in an unnamed Czech town in 1996; the data do not represent a statistical average.

Contact: Ji=F8=ED Zeman, SEVEn


The Energy Efficiency Business Week '96 Conference and Exhibition

SEVEn is already organizing the fifth international conference and exhibition Energy Efficiency Business Week in the Prague Congress Center, to take place 5-7 November 1996. During the period of its existence, the conference has become a traditional place for learning new information, making contacts, and meeting specialists in the field of energy efficiency. Last year, more than three hundred experts from a wide range of domestic and foreign producers of energy-efficient equipment, engineering and consulting firms, energy producers and consumers, financial institutes, and representatives of municipalities and state administration took part in the conference. In the accompanying exhibition, more than 40 domestic and foreign exhibitors showed their energy efficiency products and services.

This year, for its fifth anniversary, the conference will focus on energy savings in residential and office buildings and on the philosophy of and comprehensive approach to energy efficiency as an indispensable part of sustainable development. Other sections will be oriented towards financing energy-saving projects, demand-side management programs in the transforming energy market, energy savings in industry, and the activities of governmental energy agencies. A special block of lectures will be devoted to experiences with design and operation of low-energy buildings. Linked to this will be an excursion to Czech and German low-energy buildings organized by the League of Energy Alternatives.

We expect that the high point of the conference will be a discussion section on the philosophical aspects of energy savings and their relation to sustainable development. In this section, in which several intellectual leaders in the field of energy efficiency from Europe and around the world will take part, the current position of energy efficiency in regard to ethics and economics will be discussed, giving special consideration to future developments. Among those who have tentatively agreed to attend are Dr. Ernst U. von Weiz=E4cker from the German Wuppertal Institute, Professor N. I. Meyer from Denmark, Mr. Lee Shipper from the International Energy Agency, and others.

Energy Efficiency Business Week '96 will not leave out the general public. This year, in addition to the already traditional exposition, where dozens of firms present their activities every year, and other popular activities, such as advisory services and videoprojections and films on energy-efficiency- -related themes, the organizers will set up an independent section accessible by the general public. This will be dedicated to the daily life of people in relation to energy savings, various kinds of incentives to live in an energy-efficient manner, and its overall contributions to the quality of life.

Those interested in participating in the conference and exhibition may already register at SEVEn.

Contact: Martin Da=9Aek, SEVEn, tel: +42-2-2-2424 7552, fax: +42-2-2424 7597


News from the Czech Energy Agency

Interest in Programs

The mission of the Czech Energy Agency (CEA), which works under the auspices of the Ministry of Industry and Trade CR, is to assist in the implementation of state energy policies and to support measures directed at energy efficiency.

The last issue of News at SEVEn (number 2/96) contained information on programs announced by the CEA for 1996. The total amount of state subsidies dedicated to support energy-saving programs this year is CZK 200 million; an applicant may receive up to 40% of the project expenses, and a single project may only receive a maximum of between CZK 3 and 5 million, according to its type. However, support is conditional upon high energy savings of between 45-50% of original consumption.

Despite this strict demand, interest in state subsidies is large. To give just one example, the agency received over 200 applications for support within the framework of Program V (greater use of renewable and non-traditional sources of energy). In this case, applicants would like to install CZK 2 billion worth of equipment, for which they are asking for CZK 300 million in state subsidies. However, only CZK 30 million were allotted to this Program V.

Energy Consulting and Information Centers

Program VIII concerns advisory services, promotion, education, and training in the field of energy efficiency for specialists as well as for the general public. These services are primarily provided through Energy Consulting and Information Centers (ECIC, EKIS in Czech), where interested parties may gain up-to-date information in a given field free of charge.

This year, there were 83 applications for state support in the framework of Program VIII. From these an evaluation committee chose a total of 41 organizations, with which contracts have been concluded to set up the information centers. The EKIS centers will offer consultations in the following areas:

=B7 heat sources, including alternative ones

=B7 distribution of heat including heat exchange stations, hydraulic balancing of heating systems, metering and controls for heat and domestic hot water

=B7 energy management in buildings, weatherization technologies

=B7 energy policy and legislation, prices, and taxes

=B7 industrial energy management

The activities of individual centers often concern more than one of the given areas. A detailed directory of the EKIS centers is available from the CEA, which will send it out upon request. Most of the consulting and information centers are located in Prague (15), and in Southern (8) and Northern Moravia (5). In each of other regions, there are 2 to 3 EKIS centers.

New Negawatt Bulletin

In September of this year, the CEA will start publishing a new bulletin entitled NEGAWATT. Parties interested in receiving this bulletin (in Czech) free of charge may apply directly to the agency.

Contact: Czech Energy Agency, Politick=FDch v=ECzn=F9 13, 110 00 Praha 1 Press Spokesperson: RNDr. Dagmar J=E1=F2ov=E1 tel.: +42-2-2421 3695, 2421 5425 (extension 253), tel. and fax: +42-2-2421 4441

- cea/dj -


Energy Planning in Austria

Graz ranks among the foremost Austrian towns from the perspective of environmental protection. The new, recently finished municipal energy plan continues in this vein. The plan contains a proposal for concrete measures to realize established goals and to implement pilot projects. In creating an energy plan, the town set the following target goals for the year 2010 (in relation to 1987):

=B7 to reduce CO2 emissions by 50%
=B7 to reduce NOx, SO2, CxHy, CO, and dust emissions by at least 60%
=B7 to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources by 40%
=B7 to reduce the consumption of electric energy by 18%

One copy of the energy plan for Graz (in German) is available at SEVEn's office. Additional copies are available at the Graz municipality.

Contact: Karl Heinz Lesch, Air-Quality Protection Department, Graz Municipal Authorities, tel.: +43-316-97 26 58, 872-4300, fax: +43-316-872-4309


Total Energy Balance and GDP for the Period 1990 - 1995							

Indicator	(PJ)	1990	1991	1992	1993	1994	1995
Natural Domestic 
Sources of Energy	1730	1627	1501	1480	1378	1303
Energy Import	592	613	558	606	656	635
Energy Export	159	153	172	342	357	254
Gross Consumption 
of Prim. En. Sources  2163	2087	1887	1744	1677	1684
Total End Consumption 1303	1278	1180	1135	1087	1096

Gross Domestic Product (bil. CZK)
(in 1984 prices)	504	432	404	401	411	431

Structure of End Energy Consumption, 1995							

  Industry			                45%
  Households			24%
  Commerce and Services		14%
  Transportation			12%
  Agriculture			 3%
  Construction			 2%

Power Smart Offers Cooperation

The idea to save energy is truly an international concept. Therefore, any firm in Central Europe may become a member of the international association Power Smart, Inc., which deals with marketing in the field of energy efficiency and strives to be a leader in the field. Members of the association may utilize the know-how and information concentrated in the organziation, and to use the name and logo "Made-in-Canada Power Smart" to label their energy efficiency programs.

The association was founded by the Canadian power companies BC Hydro, Ontario Hydro, TransAlta Enterprises, Manitoba Hydro, Nova Scotia Power, and Newfoundland Power. Thirty energy utilitities and state agencies from around the world are members of the association. In addition to Canadian firms, there are representatives from the USA, the Caribbean, Mexico, Brazil, the Slovak Republic, and the Czech Republic.

In the Czech Republic, =C8EZ power utility and Northmoravian district heating utility (Moravskoslezsk=E9 tepl=E1rny) have already become members. Jaroslav Veselsk=FD, director of Moravskoslezsk=E9 tepl=E1rny, stated, "We want to produce and supply heat and electric energy cheaply and efficiently. We are convinced that adopting the philosophy and experiences of the Power Smart association can help to not only form an idea about the development of the enterprise, but will also support the dissemination of information on the advantages of energy saving."

Contact: Coleen Brennan, tel. +1-604-688-4637, e-mail:


Energy Efficiency Taught in Schools

More than two thousand schools and other institutions in the Czech Republic are making use of the =C8EZ educational program entitled "Energy for Everyone," as Milan K=E1=F2a, the press spokesperson for the company, stated recently. In the scope of this program are included several independent comprehensive projects.

One of these is "The First Czech Picture Encyclopedia of Energy," which will have 35 volumes in notebook format. It was written exclusively by Czech authors and covers classic and nuclear energy, alternative energy sources, electricity and magnetism, the history of energy, and also energy conservation.

Another project is instructional material dedicated to energy efficiency, waste treatment, and environmental improvement. The project, entitled "Three Steps to Life," is the result of cooperation between =C8EZ and TEREZA, the Association for Environmental Education.

As part of this program, =C8EZ offers schools excursions to various branches, especially to power plants and other energy facilities.

Contact: =C8EZ, department of public relations, tel.: +42-2-2408 2761



From 19 to 22 June 1996, the second annual international exhibition CZECHOTHERM took place at the Park Centrum exhibition center in =C8esk=E9 Bud=ECjovice. The exhibition was oriented towards HVAC, sanitary facilities, and controls.

160 firms took part in the exhibition, using an area of more than 2,800 m2. The exhibition covered heating systems for industrial spaces, ventilation and air-conditioning systems, heat-exchange devices, and other equipment.

While issues related to energy efficiency appeared almost at all exhibits in various forms, a special focuse on energy efficiency was at stands displaying walls and pipe heat insulation.

In relation to the increase in construction activity in the Czech Republic, which experienced 8% growth this year after dropping off at the beginning of 1990 and which is expected to see similar growth this year, it can be anticipated that there will be an increase in orders to technically outfit buildings.

Because of its broad scope, CZECHOTHERM has become the biggest exhibition of its kind outside of Prague. The third annual CZECHOTHERM will again take place in the =C8esk=E9 Bud=ECjovice exhibition area, this time from 18 to 21 June 1997.

Contact: Petr M=E1dr, Spole=E8nost pro techniku prost=F8ed=ED, tel.: +42-2-2108 2353


Ending in next message

BACK TO *********************************************************************