Mapping Biotic Damages Using Satellite Data; M. Schardt, K. Martin & M. Keil
Forest Damage Classification with Remote Sensing & GIS; M. Schardt et al.
Airborne Videography for Forest Damage Assessment; Jacobs & Eggen-McIntosh
Identifying AVHRR Hot Spots as Forest Fires Using Data Bases; Ruliang et al.
GIS and Inventory Technologies Pay Off in Hurricane Hugo Recovery; R. Daniels
Black Forest Storm Damage Assessment with Satellite Data; S. Kuntz, C. Kleinn
SPOT Satellite Imagery: A Resource for Disaster Assessment; W. Novajosky
ASSESSMENT OF ASH WEEVIL DEFOLIATION USING CIR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS V. Kusan, Z. Kalafadzic, R. Pernar & I. Fliszar The University of Zagreb, Croatia ABSTRACT Color infrared (CIR) transparencies were used for forest decline assessment in lowland oak and ash forest in central Sava Valley (Croatia). In the year of obtaining aerial photographs the narrow leafed ash was partly defoliated by ash weevil. The methodology for assessment of stage of defoliation for individual trees and stands were investigated. The PC ARC/INFO was used for mapping the stage of defoliation. The stage of defoliation was studied in relationships with several factors of stand and environment. MAPPING OF BIOTIC DAMAGES USING SATELLITE DATA Mathias Schardt Technical University of Berlin Klaus Martin SLU Consulting Grafelfing near Munich ABSTRACT In 1987 large parts of the "Nurnberger Reichswald" were damaged by a moth calamity (Lymantria monacha). Very often this moth appears in great numbers and then leads to very serious forest decline. The caterpillar eats the needles and leaves of all tree species, preferably the needles of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus silvestris). The most serious effects of the calamity occurred in the pine stands of the forest district "Allersberg", which is located 30 km south of Nurnberg. The damages in the pine stands were homogeneous, so that it was possible to separate homogeneous areas of different damage classes. The damaged area and the level of damages were mapped by using satellite data from Landsat Thematic Mapper. For the investigation Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes of three different dates (April and October 1987, April 1988) were used. The additional information of stand conditions and tree age, derived from digitized soil maps and forest management plans, was integrated using a geographical information system (GIS). For verification the results of the classification were compared with the damage inventory of the Bavarian Forest Experiment and Research Station, based on a colorinfrared photo-interpretation of the same area. The text of this presentation CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST DAMAGES IN THE HARZ MOUNTAINS BY MEANS OF REMOTE SENSING METHODS AND GIS TECHNIQUES M. Schardt, H. Kenneweg and H. Sagischewski Technical University of Berlin ABSTRACT The test site Harz is located between Hannover and Leipzig. Pure stands of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) are the most frequent type of silviculture in the former mining area of the higher Harz regions. Today these stands show a variety of forest decline caused by the so called "Neuartigen Waldschaden" ranking from almost no injuries in the lower regions to most severe damages like deforestation symptoms in the higher regions. The strongly affected stands are additionally damaged by storm and beetle calamities (Ips typographus). In some areas of the montane and submontane zone of the Harz forest damage even leads to total deforestation of extensive areas. In the current project the applicability of Thematic Mapper data and existing classification methods for forest damage classification is under investigation. In contrast to sampling methods satellite data allow a complete pixel-by-pixel covering assessment on the state of the vegetation. For the applicability of these methods it is necessary to define damage classes which correspond both to the requirements of satellite remote sensing and existing field methods of forest damage estimation. From the results of the signature analysis and of former classification results it could be deduced that a distinctive as well as an extensive mapping of forest damage requires the integration of auxiliary information, and for this purpose a GIS is applied including a digital terrain model, forest planning data and soil maps. Another focal point of this investigation is the documentation of forest conditions and change detection ("monitoring"). This aspect is of growing importance in the field of satellite remote sensing. Basic requirement of these goals are absolutely precise methods for geometrical and radiometrical correction of satellite data. The investigation is based on Thematic Mapper- and MSS-data from 1984 to 1991. For seriously damaged regions an aerial photo interpretation will be performed in order to compare these results with those derived from classification of Thematic Mapper data. The text of this presentation AIRBORNE VIDEOGRAPHY FOR FOREST RESOURCES DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF HURRICANE ANDREW IN SOUTHERN LOUISIANA Dennis M. Jacobs and Susan Eggen-McIntosh USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station Forest Inventory and Analysis P.O. Box 906 Starkville, MS 39759 ABSTRACT As Hurricane Andrew made landfall across Southern Florida, forest resource damage assessment plans were being developed for its imminent landfall on the Gulf Coast. It was predicted that the hurricane would hit land in Mississippi or Louisiana, in the region served by the Southern Forest Experiment Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis unit. Baton Rouge was chosen as headquarters and flexible plans were developed for an airborne videography flight over any portion of Southern Louisiana. The Atchafalaya Basin was selected as plan area number one and flight maps plotted accordingly. After landfall, the flight maps were adjusted according to aerial reconnaissance reports. Flight lines were set at ten mile intervals perpendicular to the path of the storm. An airborne videography system was used to collect aerial video imagery of the hurricane damaged area with a swath width of approximately 250 feet. The flight altiude above ground level was 2000 feet and a 55 mm lens was placed on the video camera. With a 4:3 aspect ratio, each video frame represented about one acre as a captured scene. Individual scenes were sampled at 1/2-mile intervals along the flight path and identified within broad percentile volume damage categories. Video plots interpreted for these categories were grouped into similar damage zones for interpolation between video flight lines. These damage polygons were used to retrieve forest plot information from the Southern Forest Experiment Station Forest Inventory and Analysis relational database to extimate volume of damaged timber. The text of this presentation IDENTIFICATION OF TIROS-N AVHRR HOT SPOTS AS FOREST FIRES USEING FOREST DISTRIBUTION DATA BASES Zhou Ruliang, Li Zhixi and Yue Cairong Laboratory of Remote Sensing Southwest Forestry University White Dragon Temple Kunming 650224, P.R.C. ABSTRACT TIROS-N AVHRR data was used to detect forest fires in Yunnan Province China. An important problem that we faced was that forest fires could not be identified only through the high temperature source pixels in AVHRR images. In order to resolve this problem, we studied the potential methods and proposed to set up forest distribution data bases. Considering the feature of high mountains and deep valleys, limited investment and time consuming, and forest areas mixed with agricultural areas, we experimented to establish forest distribution information data bases by means of Landsat-TM data so that TIROS-N AVHRR high temperature source pixels were identified as forest fire pixels or non-forest pixels in the data bases. GIS AND INVENTORY TECHNOLOGIES PAY OFF IN HURRICANE HUGO RECOVERY Richard F. Daniels Westvaco Corporation, Timberlands Division P.O. Box 1950 Summerville, SC 29484 ABSTRACT Hurricane Hugo downed timber valued at more than $1 billion and left its mark on 4.4 million acres in South Carolina. Westvaco Corporation was among the hardest hit with over 175,000 of a 500,000 acre land base affected. Technology in use before Hurricane Hugo proved to be invaluable in responding to the intense demands for information after the storm. A new land classification system had recently been completed and was available for the hardest hit areas. The soils data were combined with stand attributes and inventory data. This system provided consistent predictions for damage class and operability of the storm-saturated soils. Recent NAPP aerial photography was available and post-storm coverage was ordered to provide before and after photos, pinpointing the highest priorities for salvage and providing base maps for damage assessment. These sources of information were integrated using FRIS (Forest Resource Information System), a modern GIS and computerized forest inventory system. PCResQ, a PC-based geographic query system, provided maps to foresters and managers directing the recovery efforts. These tools enabled Westvaco to most effectively deploy specialized logging systems, such as helicopters and high floatation ground equipment, to salvage over 50% of the volume damaged on company land. Besides the physical losses, Hugo rendered 200,000 acres worth of inventory data worthless for future uses. Damaged stands which were not salvaged had to be reinventoried, a process still ongoing. Access to published literature on hurricane salvage and recovery was also valuable. The lack of information on recovery of damaged stands made decisions in young stands difficult. An extensive hurricane damage recovery study was established that makes use of many permanent research plots damaged in the storm. HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA TO ASSESS STORM DAMAGE AREAS IN THE NORTHERN BLACK FOREST by Steffen Kuntz Abteilung fur Luftbildmessung und Fernerkundung (1) and Christoph Kleinn Abteilung fur Forstliche Biometrie (1) ABSTRACT Early in 1990 some heavy storms caused the biggest storm damage to forests in Middle Europe ever known. In the western states of Germany about 72 million cubic meters of wood were thrown to the ground, which is twice the amount of the regular yearly cutting. The damages showed a scattered pattern, some areas were very heavily affected with damages on big areas others less. For several reasons (for forestry planning, for the wood industry and wood market strategy) an assessment and estimation of the total area affected is required. In the Section of Remote Sensing (Abteilung fur Luftbildmessung und Fernerkundung) of the Forestry Faculty of the University of Freiburg, Germany, the use of high resolution satellite imagery was investigated to obtain an overview over the extension of the storm damages. Sample site was an area corresponding to a topographical map 1:50,000 (area 544 sq. km.) in the northern part of the Black Forest. Affected areas were visually identified after some preprocessing procedures of the satellite data. The study showed that it is possible to produce maps showing the affected areas within about 4 weeks from the date of acquistion of the satellite imagery, but it also showed several limitations of the procedure. For verification orthophotos of the same region were available. About 63% of the stand was correctly classified by the satellite data interpretation (84% of the area), 18% of damaged areas were not identified and about 19% were incorrectly classified as damaged. The misclassification is to a high extent due to the scattered pattern of the damage with many small forest patches, that cannot be identified with the resolution of Landsat TM. Only areas bigger than 1 hectare can be identified with certainty with a pixel size of 30m by 30m. Additionally some considerations are presented - using the map produced from the above mentioned orthophotos - in the context of the assessment of variables that are rare and show a scattered pattern by means of rastered observations. (1) Universitat Freiburg, D-7800 Freburg i.Br., Germany. Text for this presentation SPOT SATELLITE IMAGERY: A RESOURCE FOR RAPID DISASTER ASSESSMENT William Novajosky SPOT Image Corporation Reston, VA ABSTRACT The capability for rapid acquisition of SPOT satellite imagery both pre- and post-disaster is evaluated. Spatial prediction of events is provided to initiate geocoding and orthocorrection of archived imagery for use as a change detection baseline. Post-catastrophe weather information optimizes satellite off-nadir imagery acquisition attempts. Accelerated production processes at SPOT provide a geocoded, orthocorrected post-disaster image via rapid delivery or telecommunications. (Examples discussed). Text associated with this presentation