Forest Monitoring and Inventory After Chernobil Accident; S. Smirnov
Pacific Southern Oscillation and Ohio Droughts/Fires; Yaussy & Sutherland
Two Centuries of Fire in a Pinus Pungens Community; Sutherland et al.
Monitoring Forested Wetland Losses; W. E. Frayer
Small-scale Wind Event in Old-growth Bottomland Hardwood Stand; Guldin et al.
Recovery of Loblolly Pine Plantations from Hurricane Hugo; Dunham & Bourgeois
MONITORING OF THE NORTH SIBERIA FORESTS UNDER ECOLOGICAL CATASTROPHE CONDITIONS CAUSED BY AIR-TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION Dr. Boris I. Kovaliov Western Forest Management Enterprise of LESPROEKT 211021 Brynsk, Nikitina str., 14 ABSTRACT The area of the environment damage at the down part of Yenisey River (Siberia, Russia) caused by air-technogenic pollution is about 80 thousand sq. km. The annual pollution volume exceeds 2.3 million tonnes. Forest decline is observed over 0.9 million hectares, including 0.4 million hectares of dead near-tundra forests. The conception of forest monitoring for the affected territory has been developed and is under implementation now. The main principles of the conception, method of its realization and the preliminary results are described. SOME ASPECTS OF CREATION OF SYSTEMS OF FOREST ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY ON THE TERRITORIES POLLUTED BY RADIONUCLEIDS AFTER CHERNOBIL AS ACCIDENT Dr. Sergey I. Smirnov Chief of Forest Monitoring Department Western Forest Management Enterprise of "Lesproekt" 241021 Bryansk, Nikitina str., 14 ABSTRACT Some problems related to creation of forest ecological monitoring and forest resources inventory systems in the woodlands of Bryansk region (Russia) polluted by radionucleids after Chernobil AS accident are considered, and the experience of conducting landscape-ecological survey and creation of such systems in the forests after anthropogenic catastrophic events gained by "Lesproekt" is summarized. Some words about "Lesproekt"-- "Lesproekt" founded in 1947 is a state association responsible for national forest inventory, accounting and valuation of forest resources in Russia. The main products of "Lesproekt" are forestry projects which determine the aims and long-term strategy of forestry management, normatives of timber and non-wood resources use for the forest enterprises and plan their actvities for the period of 10-15 years. The annual bulk of forest inventory and management works fulfilled by "Lesproekt" in 1992 was over 45 million hectares. RELATIONSHIPS OF THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND DROUGHTS AND WILDFIRES IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY Daniel A. Yaussy and Elaine Kennedy Sutherland USDA, Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station Delaware, OH ABSTRACT Current thinking implies that global climate change will not occur as gradual change in temperature or precipitation, but in catastrophic events such as droughts, floods, violent storms, etc. Increased drought incidence and severity will increase the probability of wildfires in forest ecosystems and dictate the amount of area burned by wildfires. This study investigates the effect of the 'el Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon on the occurrence of drought and wildfire in the Ohio River Valley. The ENSO phenomenon is measured by the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and drought is determined by the Palmer Drought Stress Index (PDSI). We used the amount of area burned by wildfires to associate drought with fire, since it is less dependent on human population density than the numbers of fires reported. Although droughts and wildfires in the Valley are apparently related to the ENSO, they are spatially, as well as temporally, scattered. The text of this presentation TWO CENTURIES OF FIRE IN A SOUTHWESTERN VIRGINIA PINUS PUNGENS COMMUNITY E. K. Sutherland, H. Grissino-Mayer, C. A. Woodhouse, W. W. Covington, S. Horn, L. Huckaby, R. Kerr, J. Kush, M. Moore, and T. Plumb ABSTRACT Fire exclusion in fire-dependent forest communities can alter stand structure and composition. The objective was to construct a fire history of two Pinus pungens Lamb. communities growing in southwestern Virginia. Tree- ring analysis of fire-scarred P. pungens specimens and a tree survey were used to determine species composition and age distributions. From 1798-1944, fires burned approximately every 10 years. After acquisition by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (ca. 1935) the study area burned only once (1944). Most of the population derives from two large cohorts established in the 1850's and 1930's, but some trees established during nearly every decade before 1950. Few, if any, trees have established since then. There appears to be a linkage between tree establishment and major fire occurrence. Recent regeneration failure appears to be coincident with fire exclusion. Continuing fire exclusiion will probably result in decline of the P. pungens communities, as they succeed to Quercus-dominated communities. The text of this presentation Monitoring Forested Wetland Losses--A U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service System Has Detected Something Expected, Something New, and a Total Surprise W. E. Frayer, Professor and Dean School of Forestry and Wood Products Michigan Technological University ABSTRACT Forested wetlands (swamps) are the most prevalent wetlands in the 48 contiguous states. In the 1980's, forested wetlands comprised 51,747,800 acres, or 50.1% of the wetlands in the 48 states. Forested wetlands have also experienced the largest losses. Between the 1950's and 1970's an average annual net conversion of over 310 thousand acres from swamps to agriculture was experienced. In the period from the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, this average annual net loss had dropped to about 109 thousand acres. However, during this latter period, an average of 115 thousand acres a year was converted from swamps to uses other than agriculture. Also during the latter period (and coming as a surprise to the designers of the survey), an average annual net loss of over 140 thousand acres was caused by other factors. The text of this presentation ECOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF A SMALL-SCALE LINEAR WIND EVENT IN AN OLD-GROWTH BOTTOMLAND HARDWOOD STAND IN SOUTHCENTRAL ARKANSAS James M. Guldin, Brian R. Lockhart and Lance Peacock ABSTRACT The Moro Bottoms Research Natural Area, a 200-acre bottomland hardwood stand in the Moro Creek flowage near Fordyce AR, is a relict old-growth stand of oaks, sweetgum, and cypress which the Arkansas Nature Conservancy acquired from Georgia-Pacific Corporation in 1986. As an element of that acquisition, a 100% inventory of the stand was obtained on the area. During a summer evening in 1989, a line of thunderstorms moved across southcentral Arkansas, affecting forest vegetation in a localized manner. These winds promoted windthrow in a number of forested landscapes; including the Moro Bottoms RNA. Following the windstorm, a 100% inventory of all windthrown trees was taken, providing a unique data set to scrutinize the ecological effects of the windstorm. There were 47 different species of woody stems on the tract, of which ten were uprooted. Sweetgum and the several white oak species were proportionally resistant to uprooting, whereas the red oaks were disproportionally uprooted. A larger proportion of overstory trees of intermediate diameter (22"-30" dbh) were uprooted than of small (12"-20") or large (32"-40") and very large (42"+) diameter. Analyses focus upon the influence of site, diameter, azimuth, and species identity on probability of uprooting, and on the fortuitous happenstance of a 100% predisturbance inventory in characterizing the ecological pattern of windthrow. The text of this presentation LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PLANTATION-GROWN LOBLOLLY PINE FROM HURRICANE HUGO P. H. Dunham and D. M. Bourgeois (1) ABSTRACT A study to quantify the long-term recovery of plantation-grown loblolly pine from damage inflicted by Hurricane Hugo was installed on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina approximately four months after the storm. Permanent plots were established in nine plantations, ranging in age from 2 to 20 years but predominantly age 5 and younger. Several traditional and non-traditional tree variables are being measured including stem angles measured at up to six points on the stem. Photographs of selected trees and scenes are also being taken at each remeasurement. First-year results include a relative low mortality of 6%. Of this 6%, none were non-leaning trees, 19% had moderate lean (>45 degrees from vertical) and 81% had severe lean (45 degrees or more). The average angle of all mortality trees was 60 degrees from vertical. There is a statistically significant but weak negative correlation between initial age and stem recovery. For all leaning trees, the average positive change in stem angle between 1990 and 1991 generally decreased as the age of the stand increased, particularly for those stands initially older than age 5. One-year diameter growth was approximately the same for non-leaning trees and those with moderate lean, but greatly diminished for severely leaning trees. Stem-length growth was generally greatest on the non-leaners and somewhat less on trees with moderate lean. Stem-length growth for trees with severe lean initially was approximately half that measured for non-leaners. Tentatively, the study will be monitored for eleven years, at which time some destructive sampling may be done to look at possible wood quality effects from the hurricane. (1) Biometrics Center Leader and Biometry Project Assistant, respectively. Both authors can be reached at: Westvaco Corp., P.O. Box 1950, Summerville, SC 29484; phone (803) 871-5000, fax (803) 875-7185. The text of this presentation