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SPOT Image Corporation maintains a portfolio of project information sheets
that illustrate the role of SPOT image information for various situations.
Following is the text of selected project information sheets which are
particularly relevant to catastrophic contexts concerning forestry:
                                 WHAT'S LEFT?
PROJECT:  The summer of 1988 saw extensive forest fires raging through
          Yellowstone National Park, Gallatin National Forest and adjoining
forest lands, threatening lives and property and consuming valuable timber
resources.  Long after the fires are out, significant work remains in
assessing damages and monitoring revegetation.

PROBLEM:  Post fire damage assessments require extensive aerial photographic
          coverage and/or field work, both of which are very expensive and
time consuming.  However, this work is essential for assessing resource loss,
planning future fire suppression and for monitoring and researching forest

SOLUTION:  SPOT provides several benefits which make it an ideal information
           source for planning controlled burn strategies, assessing post fire
damages and monitoring regeneration.  These include:

                <>  single scene large area coverage
                <>  high resolution for small area mapping
                <>  image acquisition several times per month
                <>  color IR imagery for vegetation monitoring

SPOT provides quick, accurate and comprehensive information for a fraction of
the cost of other information sources.  Yet SPOT also gives you the detail you
need for directing the use of more expensive methods such as aerial
photography, helicopter and field surveys.

   In this case, a SPOT image taken on Sept. 20, 1987 (year before fire)
represents conditions on the Gallatin National Forest before the fire.  SPOT
recorded the Hell Roaring and Storm Creek Fires burning across the Gallatin
National Forest on August 7, 1988.  SPOT was there again just days after the
fires were out (Sept. 23, 1988) to record post-fire conditions.

PROJECT:  Monitor defoliation by gypsy moths and assess effectiveness of
          eradication techniques in the national forests of Virginia and
West Virginia.  Application by the U.S. Forest Service.

PROBLEM:  Accurate monitoring and assessment of scattered and widespread
          gypsy moth damage requires detailed coverage of large areas,
acquired at very specific times.  Field and aerial photographic surveys are
too inefficient, inaccurate and time consuming to be effective in tracking
this fast-acting pest over large areas such as the Forest Service's 13.5
million acre pest management project.

SOLUTION:  SPOT  gives the U.S. Forest Service the detailed comprehensive
           coverage they need for surveying large areas.  More importantly
this coverage can be acquired during the short critical time period when gypsy
moth activity is most apparent.

   In photographic form, the large area covered by a single SPOT scene allows
investigators to identify and map defoliation up to 25 times more quickly than
with aerial photography.  SPOT's digital imagery can be used to automatically
survey and identify pest damage over larger areas, such as the 13.5 million
acre project area, whre aerial photography is impractical.

REFERENCE:  W. M. Ciesla, C. W. Dull & R. E. Acciavatti.  1989.
            Interpretation of SPOT-1 color composites for mapping defoliation
            of hardwood forests by gypsy moth.  Photogrammetric Engineering

    SPOT Catches Red River Flood at Peak for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
PROJECT:  When the Red River flooded in May 1990, it surpassed 100-year flood
          projections.  As the flood progressed, the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (COE) knew it must update its flood control and emergency
preparedness plans.  To help prepare for future floods, COE needed imagery
of the flood as it peaked.  Application by the Little Rock District, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers.

PROBLEM:  COE needed images of the flood peak as it moved downstream for
          accurate mapping and damage estimates.  To provide the most
meaningful images, acquisition would have to occur as the peak reached
population and farming areas.  As COE staff tracked it on the ground, the
image supplier would have to be in constant contact with COE, ready to respond
at a moment's notice.  Aerial photography was not an option.  There was too
much territory to cover in a short period and the cost of keeping an airplane
crew standing by was too high.  Satellite imagery was an option, but the big
question was could existing companies provide the "revisit" capability and the
rapid response service that the COE needed.

SOLUTION:  SPOT had the necessary "revisit" capability and rapid-response
           service.  During the critical week, SPOT made several passes over
the Red River flood peak.  Because of the changing speed of the flood peak,
timing was crucial.  SPOT technicians were on the phone with COE staff every
day.  When the word came, they reprogrammed the SPOT satellite to capture that
day's peak - just the image COE needed for their analysis.  With this
information, COE staff compare this flood with their contingency plans to
assure effectiveness and reduce damage from future storms.  They will know if
more controls are needed - or new management safeguards.  All this was
possible because a resource now exists that can supply images of events as
they take place and evolve.  That resource is SPOT!


   The foregoing project brochure sheets among others can be obtained from:

                            SPOT Image Corporation
                            1897 Preston White Drive
                            Reston, Virginia 22091-4368
                            Tel:  (703) 715-3100
                            Fax:  (703) 648-1813

   SPOT also offers a FREE CD-ROM with 21 SPOTView sample images in the GIS-
GeoSPOT Version 4.0 format.  The U.S. scenes include a variety of
environments, frame sizes, and map projections, in both panchromatic and
multispectral data modes.  GIS-GeoSPOT Version 4.0 is compatible with most
GIS, image processing and desktop mapping systems.  Two scenes of Laguna
Beach, CA show fire scars, and there is also a St. Louis Mississippi River
flood sample.  To request your CD-ROM, contact SPOT Image Corporation at