NESDA-AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTAL NEWSLETTER - ISSUE 30-31 - JUNE-JULY'96
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This newsletter is a publication of the Network for
Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA).
Contributions, suggestions, comments and articles should be
addressed to Abou Bamba, Editor, NESDA, BP 95, Guichet
Annexe BAD, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, tel: 225. 20 52 23, fax:
225. 20 59 22, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Subjects of special interest to our readers, information on
ongoing and upcoming events, conferences on ESD in SSA,
letters to the editor or any other type of contributions are
Material contained in this newsletter may be freely
reproduced provided that acknowledgment of the source is
made. NESDA would appreciate receiving a copy of any
publication that uses this publication as a source.
This newsletter is also available in French.
In this issue:
1. PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL AS AN APPLIED RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY IN SOUTH AFRICAN RURAL AREAS.
2. WORLD BANK WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN WEST CENTRAL AFRICA.
3. REGIONAL TRAINING AND SENSITIZATION WORKSHOP ON
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN WORLD NATURAL HERITAGE SITES IN
WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA.
4. UNEP INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY CENTRE (IETC)
PROVIDES TRAINING ON ASSESSING AND APPLYING NEW
5. TERI HOSTS THE 20TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF
6. OZONACTION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE DISKETTE VERSION
(OAIC-DV 4.0) AVAILABLE.
@HEADLINE = PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL AS AN APPLIED
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN SOUTH AFRICAN RURAL AREAS
Top-down rural development strategies in Africa have
generally not succeeded in raising living standards among
the rural poor. It is argued that inappropriate development
strategies have stemmed from methodologies which fail to
appreciate the whole picture in rural communities and, in
particular, ignore local people's perceptions, needs and
understanding. In the past, many approaches assumed that all
development activities implicitly embodied objectives of
poverty-reduction and that positive progress would be
achieved through the process of `trickle down'. To date
there has been a `distinct failure' of these processes as a
means of reaching the poor. In South Africa, after decades
of imposed state control and marginalisation, new
development strategies and research methodologies are
required to assess and cater for the needs of the rural
A positive trend globally and in South Africa, in recent
years, has been a notable shift in the focus of rural
development strategies, from dictatorial `top-down'
approaches to locally based and more democratic `bottom-up'
One of the key reasons for this paradigmatic swing is
undoubtedly due to the development of new, more enlightened
and sensitive rural research methodologies, most notably an
array of methods known collectively as `Participatory Rural
Appraisal' (PRA). At one level PRA can be seen as a reaction
to previous econometric and quantitative approaches, which
frequently ignored `people' and preferred to concentrate on
issues of `production' rather than on 'the producers', and
the critical role played by indigeneous people and coping
systems. The emergence of PRA han led to a reappraisal of
research methods, which has in turn led to a reformulation
of rural development strategies.
A key feature of PRA is its holistic outlook, in which the
interaction between different elements in people-environment
relationships are considered. This article describes PRA in
the specific context vitally needed rural development in
postapartheid South Africa, where past strategies either
ignored rural people or subjected them to harsh forms of
control. PRA has not yet been fully recognised and accepted
by planners and policy makers as a research methodology in
New times and new policies clearly require new technics to
help solve rural development challenges and to better
understand the dynamics of rural communities and their
needs. There is an urgent need to implement policies in
South Africa which leads to empowerment of people, promote
rural development and lay the basis for a sustainable
utilization of available resources. This would represent a
major departure from previous approaches, and would
hopefully encourage the ideals of democracy and transparency
which are gradually developing in the new South Africa. To
assist with the process of change and to involve people in
the development process, it is suggested that PRA provides a
vital mechanism to incoporate the views and skills of rural
people in formulating locally appropriate development
PRA, unlike earlier methodologies, recongnises that
indigeneous pepople are capable of identifying and
expressing their needs and aspirations themselves and in
their on way, such that the role of the researcher is
reduced to that of a listener, learner, catalyst and
Some of the key PRA techniques included:
- direct observation, and 'do it yourself',
- discussion with key informants,
- case-studies and stories,
- group discussions,
- participatory mapping and modelling,
- transect walks,
- time-lines and trend and change analysis,
- seasonal analysis,
- daily time use analysis,
- wealth ranking, and
- matrix scoring and ranking.
PRA is still in its infancy in South Africa, but where it
has been attempted the results are positive and constructive
in nature. The authors have undertaken an exploratory PRA
exercise in various rural, community initiated development
schemes in order to determine community dynamics,
aspirations, needs and the potential to help empower
communities to recognize and articulate their development
needs and to help to attain them.
T. Hill and E. Nel
Department of Geography
Tel: (0461) 318324
Check out the new South African Environment Homepage at
@HEADLINE = TATA ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE (TERI) IS HOSTING
THE 20TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ENERGY ECONOMICS (IAEE) WITH
THE THEME "ENERGY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH-IS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH
TERI, jointly with the International Association for Energy
Economics (IAEE) is hosting the 20th Annual International
Conference of the IAEE on the theme "Energy and Economic
Growth-Is Sustainable Growth Possible?" between January 22
24, 1997 in New Delhi, India. Invitations has been sent out
for (i) submission of abstracts of 300-500 words and ii)
expressions of interest in organising a session with
proposed topics, objectives and possible speakers.
The Plenary sessions of the conference are:
Globalization: challenges and opportunities in shaping a
Emerging development paradigms and rural energy needs
International environmental problems and coping strategies
Technology transfer and national capacity enhancement
Financing sustainable energy development
Emerging markets and environment friendly development
India: energy markets and policy framework
Concurrent Sessions are proposed around the following:
1. Energy Alternatives and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
2. Globalisation of the Energy Industry and Regional Growth
3. Energy Supply-Demand Projections: How Big is the Gap?
4. Experiences and Lessons From the Pilot Joint
5. Implications of Energy Taxes and Subsidies for
Sustainable Energy Growth
6. Lifestyles, Technology Changes, and Energy in the 21st
7. The Energy Cycle, Resource Degradation, and Human Health
8. Energy Efficiency and the Role of Informal Markets
9. Promoting Renewable Energy Projects
10. Valuing Environmental Costs of the Energy Cycle
11. Financing Sustainable Energy Development: Options and
12. Managing Urban Transport Growth
13. Energy Security and Environment Security: What
determines? 14. Recent Developments in the Hydrocarbon
15. Promoting Clean Energy Technologies
16. Biomass: An Environment Friendly Energy Alternative?
17. Bridging the Energy Gap: Private Participation, Reforms,
and Regulatory Structuring
TERI would be grateful if you could pass the word around and
give it some serious thought yourself. Any suggestions on
Plenary speakers, keynote speakers?
For more information, please contact: Ms Leena
Dean Policy Analysis
Darhari Seth Block
India Habitat Centre
New Delhi 110003
@HEADLINE = THE WORLD BANK ORGANIZED A WORKSHOP ON
ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN WEST-
The World Bank organized a workshop on
"Environmentally Sustainable Development in West
Central Africa", in Yamoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, from
1-5 July 1996.
The initial objectives of the workshop as defined by the
- to clearly define the environmental priorities in each
- to encourage and facilitate a dialogue between the
stakeholder countries on their main environmental
problems; - to explain the World Bank's assistance
- to discuss the opportunities for better analysies of the
transboundary problems and to share succes stories and
However, the planning meeting which brought together all
participating countries representatives set the two major
objectives as follows:
- reach a clear agreement on the fundamental and priority
problems which the West-Central African countries are
currently facing with emphasis on sub-regional cooperation;
- to identify the type of assistance needed to efficiently
address the priority problems identified with emphaisis on
the resources of the concerned countries.
The keynote speech was delivered by the Minister of
Environment of Cote d'Ivoire, and was followed by different
plenary sessions were organized on the following themes:
- Sustainable Development Strategy in West Central
Africa; -Integration of Environment in National Planing
and Budget Processes;
- Participation of Stakholders in the Development and
Implementation of Environmental Projects and Programmes;
- Training, Awareness and Education;
- Sub-regional Collaboration: Session 1: Data management and
Exchange of Information;
- Sub-regional Collaboration: Session 2: Management of
- Sub-regional Collaboration: Session 3: Management of
Transboundary Parks, Rangelands, Forest and Biodiversity
The workshop also included working group sessions on the
themes discussed during the plenary session.
A presentation was made on NESDA's objectives, goals,
strategies, etc... A meeting was then organized with
environmental NGOs which have requested membership with
NESDA. The last day of the workshop was devoted to a
detailed presentation on the Global Environment Facility
The participants adopted the "Declaration of Yamoussoukro",
constituting the core of what the 7 country representatives
expected from the international donor community in terms of
A common statement of international partners and agencies
including NESDA was also delivered.
Plenary session documents, working group reports, the common
statement of international partner agencies and the
"Declaration of Yamoussoukro" are available at NESDA's
Secretariat for consultation.
@ HEADLINE = THE UNEP INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
CENTRE (IETC) PROVIDES TRAINING ON ASSESSING AND APPLYING
UNEP Information Note.
For use as information. Not an official record.
Workshop on Environmental Technology Assessment in Sub-
Saharan Africa: A UNEP EnTA Leadership Programme Organized
in Cooperation with the Centre for Regional Development of
Potchefstroom University for CHE, South Africa, 25-28
The UNEP IE/IETC Environmental Technology Assessment
Programme (EnTA), in collaboration with the Potchefstroom
University for Christian Higher Education, is organizing a
leadership training programme for Sub-Saharan Africa on the
utilization of Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA)
for decision-making in the management of Environmentally
Sound Technologies (ESTs). The training for 20 participants
is scheduled for 25-28 November 1996 at Potchefstroom
University for CHE, South Africa. The workshop will be
based on a pilot programme field-tested in November 1995 in
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Environmental technology assessment is an analytical tool
used to help
understand the likely environmental impacts of a new
technology being used by an industry, municipality, country
or society. As such, EnTA can be utilized to strengthen EST
decision-making capabilities. The planned training will be
structured around case studies from either the city hosting
the seminar or from the countries of the participants and
will emphasize the exchange of experiences among trainees.
In addition, each trainee will generate a personal action
plan aimed at implementing local EnTA training activities of
their own that will be directed toward
building/strengthening decision-making capabilities in their
The training programme has been designed and formatted as a
proactive workshops, including on-site visits, that address
the following key topics:
EnTA and development issues
Institutional aspects of technology assessment
EnTA as a communication process
Identifying environmental impacts of technologies on
large cities and
The training will be targeted at the needs of Sub-Saharan
African government, civil-society and industrial decision-
makers in the area of technology implementation/regulation,
as well as at those with responsibilities involving
environmental issues. A limited number of senior to mid-
level managers of (environmental) training centres will also
be targeted in order that they may facilitate the
implementation of future national EnTA training events.
In addition to these two training activities, IETC has
developed a pilot training programme on Environmental Risk
Assessment (EnRA) for sustainable cities which was
successfully field-tested in a regional workshop for Eastern
and Central European countries, held in Katowice, Poland, in
April 1996. Another training programme is under preparation
based on IETC's International Source Book on Environmentally
Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management.
For more information:
Dr. Richard A. Meganck
Director, UNEP IETC
2-110 Ryokuchi-Koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538 Japan
Tel: +81-6-915-4580, Fax: +81-6-915-0304
or Mr. Christina Strohmann, IETC Information Officer (Email:
UNEP Information Note 1996/17
@HEADLINE = REGIONAL TRAINING AND SENSITIZATION WORKSHOP ON
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN WORLD NATURAL HERITAGE SITES IN
WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA.
The University of Abobo-Adjame of Cote d'Ivoire, in
collaboration with UNESCO, the Ivorian Ministry of
Environment and World Wildlife Fund International, organized
a regional workshop on the theme mentioned below, from 10-13
June, 1996, .
The objective of the workshop was to give the opportunity to
African professionals to share experience in biodiversity
Participants came from Cameroon, Guinea, Mauritania, Niger,
CAR, Senegal and Zaire. They delivered papers on case-
studies related to the workshop theme with regard to the
situation they are facing in their countries. Among others,
the following case-studies were debated:
- "Biodiversity Conservation in Cameroon, The Biosphere
Reserve of the Dja Forest."
- "Natural Heritage Sites of Mount Nimba - Guinea"
- "Problematic and Strategies for Conservation of World
Natural Heritage Sites in Senegal"
- "How WWW International Can Contribute to the
Implementation of the Biodiversity Convention in African
- "World Natural Heritage Sites Problematic and Their Roles
in the Biodiversity Conservation in Cote d'Ivoire"
Information on the workshop can be obtained from:
Pr. Houenou Pascal
Centre Universitaire d'Abobo-Adjame
02 BP 801 Abidjan
T. +225. 37 81 16
F. +225. 37 21 18
@HEADLINE = OZONACTION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE DISKETTE
VERSION (OAIC-DV 4.0)
UNEP Information Note
For use as information. Not an offical record.
UNEP's OzonAction Programme released the fourth version of
the database OzonAction Information Clearinghouse diskette
version (OAIC-DV 4.0) to coincide with World Environment
Day, 6 June 1996.
This information exchange service is specifically designed
National Ozone Units (NOUs) and industry associations in
developing countries with their programmes to phase out
ozone depleting substances (ODS).
It is intended to assist in the transfer of environmentally-
"ozone-friendly" technologies and "know how" from companies,
organizations and individuals that have experience with
successfully phasing out ODS, to their counterparts in
developing countries who seek the technology and expertise
required for their transition to non-ODS alternatives.
OAIC-DV is updated twice a year and developed as part of
UNEP Industry and Environment Office as an Implementing
Agency under the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol.
The OAIC-DV is a collection of data bases that contains the
information equivalent of approximately 1000 pages of
written text. It is a handy electronic reference tool that
is easily searchable by specific keywords or any word(s) one
specifies, and the results can be quickly printed out using
your word processor.
A copy of the OAIC-DV 4.0 can be obtained from the
OzonAction Programme of UNEP IE in Paris.
Mr. Rajendra Shende, Coordinator
UNEP IE OzonAction Programme
Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 Quai Andre Citroen, 75739
Paris, CEDEX 15, France.
Tel: (33 1) 44 37 1450, Fax: (33 1) 44 37 14
74, E-mail: email@example.com
UNEP Information Note 1996/12