JPAM UPDATE: News on Action Towards Joint Protected Area Management


No. 10
July 1996



Tiger Crisis Cell team appraises Kaziranga and Manas

A four-person team from the Tiger Crisis Cell comprising of S. Deb Roy, Valmik Thapar, Bittu Sahgal and Dr. Ullas Karanth, visited Manas and Kaziranga Tiger Reserves in April 1996 (Tiger Link News June 1996). According to the team poaching and encroachment are two of the major problems in the area. In Manas, rhinos are reported to be nearly extinct, swamp deer and hog deer have decreased while elephant tuskers are being regularly shot. The situation with the Forest Department is also reported to be grim. Morale is extremely low among staff and some Forest Guards have not been paid wages for three months. Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is especially threatened by rampant use of pesticides, including DDT, by the several tea estates in the surrounding area. (See also NEWS FROM STATES).


Lions moving out of Gir National Park /Maldharis being evicted?

According to recent reports (Business Standard 28 May 1996) from Gujarat, an unspecified number of Asiatic lions have been sighted in the Kodnar and Girnar forests of Junagadh district, some 40-60 km away from Gir National Park. While the exact reasons for this movement are not immediately clear, Forest Department officials claim it could be due to the rise in the number of lions in Gir. A census conducted by the Forest Department in 1995 reported 304 lions in Gir. However local conservationists are skeptical about the Department's census technique and claim there are probably no more than 200.

The reports also claimed that indiscriminate promotion of Gir as a tourist destination has taken its toll by way of unregulated numbers of visitors, vehicular pollution and plastic waste. Other pressures include public access roads, a railway line, and two temple complexes that have become major pilgrimage centers attracting over a lakh visitors every year.

Experts are also worried about the implications of the limited number of lions in Gir, which may lead to in-breeding and genetic complications in future. There is a therefore a proposal to relocate some lions from Gir to the Palpur Kuno Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh.

Meanwhile, Setu-Centre for Social Knowledge and Action, an Ahmedabad based NGO, has alleged that the Forest Department is forcibly relocating Maldharis from Gir, as part of a Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded eco-development project, even though the project's own documents clearly state that there is to be no involuntary displacement'. This has also been corroborated by newspaper reports on the issue (Times of India 28 May 1996). The allegation is further supported by another NGO based in the Gir area, the Saurashtra Paryavaran Sanrakshan Samiti (SPSS). The Forest Department, however, claims that only three Maldharis have been served notices for carrying out illegal activities, at least one of them for claiming occupancy rights to Gir despite being from outside.

In March and April this year, demonstrations and fasts were held by a group of Maldharis, supported by SPSS, to protest against the action of the authorities. A petition was also presented to the Gujarat Chief Minister by SPSS.

Currently there are an estimated 7,000 Maldharis spread over 54 nesses (settlements) in the roughly 1,400 sq km Gir National Park and Sanctuary. Between 1973 to 1983, 845 Maldhari families were relocated from the protected area and given land for agriculture in the surrounding area. However, they have been unsuccessful in adopting farming as a way of life. It is uncertain whether the remaining Maldharis will be allowed to remain inside Gir. In 1990 the Maldharis were accorded Scheduled Tribe status by the government.

For further information on the recent events, pl. contact: Achyut Yagnik, Setu-Centre for Social Knowledge and Action, 1 Punyashlok, near Liberty bus-stop, University Road, Ahmedabad 380 009. Ph: (0272) 656 0751. For the Forest Department's version, pl. contact: Deputy Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), Sasangir 363 125, District Junagadh, Gujarat.

Gujarat High Court order on Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary

On 23 April, 1996, the Gujarat High Court passed an interim order staying the construction of a jetty by the Sanghi Cements Co. at the site of the Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary in Gujarat. The order was passed on a petition filed by the World Wide Fund for Nature, which has for the last few years been trying to stop the state government from destroying the Sanctuary.

Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, covering 766, was declared in 1981, to protect the unique desert and saline wetland ecosystem of western Kutch, and its inhabitant wildlife like the Chinkara, Houbara bustard, and flamingos. Unfortunately, the same state government which took this step has in the 1990s targeted the area for mining and industrial expansion. To facilitate this, it went to the extent of denotifying a substantial portion of the sanctuary, reducing the area to 444 This was done especially to accommodate the cement factory proposed by Sanghi Cements, and the related mining. Unfortunately, this denotification could not be stopped by NGO action.

However, WWF-I has continued to keep its vigil in the area, and has won a temporary battle by getting an injunction against the construction of a jetty and related works, which are needed for the factory. This was based on its finding that these works were in violation of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification of 1991.

Contact: Sanjay Upadhyaya, Centre for Environment Law, World Wide Fund for Nature - India, 172 B Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003. Ph: (011) 469 3744/461 6532; Fax: (011) 462 6837; Email:


Efforts to protect Olive Ridley turtle nesting sites in Bhitarkanika Sanctuary

A string of islands in the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of Orissa, form a part of the 170 sq km Bhitarkanika Sanctuary. The islands and a part of the coast are reported to be favoured nesting sites for the highly endangered Olive Ridley turtle. Recently, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) acquired six major islands of a group called Wheeler Islands to build a missile testing range. According to Banka Behary Das of Orissa Krushak Mahasangh, a Bhubaneshwar based NGO, and experts like B.C. Choudhury of the Wildlife Institute of India, this range and its associated activities would pose a major threat to the nesting turtles.

Information on the matter was sent, among others, to the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister, who suggested a meeting between NGO representatives and the Director, DRDO, to try and find ways out. Following some patient negotiations, the DRDO has agreed to take the following measures to protect the turtle and its nesting sites:

1. As far as possible, missile test firing will not be carried out between November and April, which is the peak turtle nesting period at Gahirmatha beach.

2. Lighting arrangements on Outer Wheeler Island during construction, and thereafter, will be suitably altered to prevent confusing turtle hatchlings, who have been observed heading away from the sea under the influence of lights.

3. The DRDO will request the Indian Coast Guard, and possibly the Indian Navy, to assist in patrolling and anti-poaching operations during the nesting period.

If successfully carried out, this appears to be a significant example of what some simple collaboration can achieve. But strict monitoring will obviously be necessary in future.

Contact: Banka Behary Das, Orissa Krushak Mahasangh, Parivesh Bhavan, 14 Ashok Nagar, Bhubaneshwar 751 009, Orissa. Ph.: (0647) 400 305; Fax: (0647) 404 222, 409 1125.


Teesta Hydro-electric Project threatens Khangchendzonga National Park

A public meeting was held at Magan Bazaar, on 20 August 1995, to discuss the Sikkim Government's proposal to implement Stage III of the Teesta Hydro-electric Project, in the North District of Sikkim. The Project site lies in the buffer zone of Khangchendzonga National Park, an area of considerable biodiversity value. A resolution passed at the meeting made the following demands:

1. The Government of Sikkim consider cancelling the Teesta Hydro-electric project.

2. The memorandum submitted to the President of India on 21 October 1991 should be duly considered by the Government.

3. The impact of the Project on the local Lepcha community, and on the Khangchendzonga National Park are likely to be severe enough to warrant cancellation of the Project.

4. Small scale power project should be actively considered for power generation and meeting the power requirements of Sikkim.

The resolution, signed by local village leaders, Panchayat representatives, current and former MLAs, was submitted to the Union Minister of Environment and Forests in November 1995.

Contact: Nandu Thapa, MP, Thapa House, Paljar, Stadium Road, Gangtok 737 101, Sikkim. Ph: (03592) 22348.


NGO initiates award for Forest Department staff in Corbett Tiger Reserve The Corbett Foundation, an NGO working in and around Corbett Tiger Reserve, has initiated an annual award of Rs.10,000 to be given to a member of the Forest Department staff for contributing the most to tiger conservation'. The first award was conferred to Shri Sati, Forest Guard, Corbett Tiger Reserve, for anti-poaching operations.

Additional activities of the Foundation include: provision of elementary health facilities in villages around the Reserve; awareness generation about conservation and environment including field visits to the Reserve for interaction with Forest Department staff; and advice to villagers on receiving compensation for injury/death caused by wildlife.

Contact: Corbett Foundation, N-37 Ist Fl., Panchshila Park, Ne Delhi 110 017. Ph: (011) 644 4016;646 2011; Fax: (011) 644 7564.



State government takes steps towards forest and wildlife conservation

According to reports (The Pioneer 1 June 1996), the newly appointed State Forest Minister for Assam, Nagen Sharma, has proposed a series of bold measures to conserve the state's forest resources and wildlife. These include:

1. A total ban on tree felling in Reserved Forests in Assam forthwith; requirements of existing permit holders to be met from stocks in Forest Department (FD) timber depots.

2. FD to provide a detailed report on causes of destruction of forests in the state.

3. A vigilance cell headed by a Chief Conservator of Forests established, to check illegal activities in forest areas.

4. An enquiry into reinstatement by the previous government, of suspended FD officers.

5. In Kaziranga National Park :

i. Income from tourism to be used for emergency work in the Park.

ii. Foreign tourists visiting the Park to be charged entry fees in foreign currency.

iii. A proposal to increase the area of Kaziranga NP by 400 sq. km., in an attempt to bring under the control of the Park authorities, areas where poaching is reported. Financial resources to facilitate the expansion of area have already been deposited with the Revenue department.

6. For Manas Tiger Reserve, a committee to recommend improvements in management.

7. A Wildlife Trust established to help field staff posted in remote parts of PAs and RFs. A part of regular salaries will be donated at the following rates: Minister of State - 1 months salary; all Forest Department officers upto DFO - 7 days; Rangers - 3 days; all other staff - 1 day. The Trust has set itself a target of raising Rs.10 lakhs annually.

Unfortunately, though welcome in themselves, these measures once again seem to miss out the critical element of involving local communities in and around Assam's protected areas.


Tribal organisations oppose M.P. Forestry Project

The World Bank aided Forestry Project in Madhya Pradesh, which has substantial components related to protected areas, has come in for strong criticism from several tribal organisations. At a meeting on May 17-18, 1996, at Bhopal, the organisations pointed out that the participatory nature of the project was dubious, and that the project could end up further curtailing the essential links of the tribals with forests, including in and around protected areas. The signatories to a statement which resulted from the workshop include Ekta Parishad; Kisan Adivasi Sangathan, Kesla; Chhatisgarh Mukti Morcha; Adivasi Mukti Sangathan, Khandwa; Narmada Bachao Andolan; and Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Udyog Sangathan.

These organisations plan to produce a booklet on the Forestry Project, covering various aspects. They have requested help from environmentalists and scientists in analysing the implications of the Project, both for the campaign which is to be launched against it, and for the booklet.

Contact: Gautam Bandyopadhyay / Devjit Nandi, Ekta Parishad, House 1192, Sector 1, Shanker Nagar, Raipur 492 007. Ph: (0771) 423 775 (Raipur); (07721) 4498 (Tilda).

For another critique of the M.P. Forestry Project, also contact: Bittu Sahgal, Sanctuary Magazine, 602 Maker Chambers V, Nariman Point, Bombay 400 021. Ph: (022) 283 0061; Fax : (022) 287 4380; Email:


Workshop on Protected Areas of Uttar Pradesh

The Forest Department, Uttar Pradesh, held a 3-day workshop on Biodiversity Conservation and Planning for Protected Areas of UP, at Dehradun, on 27-29th May, 1996. The objectives included the identification of biodiversity values for which protected areas are to be managed, examination of ways of integrating regional and ecodevelopment concerns into management planning, and of ways to include participation of stakeholders including local communities. The discussions covered the whole range of issues facing PAs, though unfortunately, the linkages with the U.P. Forestry Project, of which the workshop turned out to be a part, were not clearly drawn out. Draft recommendations include the creation of special area boards for each PA and its surrounds, in which various government agencies, local community representatives, NGOs, and others can work with the Forest Department in planning for conservation and people's livelihood.

For further details, contact: Ashok Singh, Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), 17 Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, Uttar Pradesh. Ph: (0522) 283 902; Fax: (0522) 283 871.


Government agrees to no development' zones around protected areas

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has reportedly fully endorsed the idea of a no development' zone of 5 km. around all PA boundaries, one of the recommendations of the Delhi High Court Committee on Wildlife Conservation, Protection and Laws (See JPAM Update 9). However, the concept of no development', and how it is to be enforced, remains to be clarified. It is also unclear whether this will apply only to new proposals for development, or extend to existing industries and development projects around national parks and sanctuaries.

The MoEF has also not made any formal announcement yet, about the recommendations of the Committee (reported in JPAM Update 9).

Contact: M.F. Ahmed, Inspector-General of Forests, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003. Ph: (011) 436 1669.

Additional NGO inputs for amendments to Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972

More submissions for changes in the Wild Life (Protection) Act (WLPA) have been made by NGOs, to the Committee set up for the purpose at the Ministry of Environment and Forests. So far the following NGOs/institutions have responded :

1. National Committee for Protection of Common Land Resources, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu (See JPAM Update 7).

2. VIKSAT, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (See JPAM Update 9).

3. Karnataka Rajya Moolnivasi Budakattu Janara Vedike and Tribal Joint Action Committee Karnataka (See JPAM Update 9).

4. Wildlife First!, Bangalore, Karnataka (See JPAM Update 9).

5. Econet, Pune, Maharashtra.

6. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi (see JPAM Update 9).

7. Rhino Foundation, Guwahati, Assam.

8. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka.

9. Nature Lovers Movement, Thiruvamkulam, Kerala.

10. Ranthambhor Foundation, New Delhi.

Summaries of some of the latest submissions for changes in the WLPA :

R. Sukumar of the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, has recommended that there should be specific legislation for acquisition of land which could be important corridors for wildlife movement. Regarding research in PAs, there is need for appropriate guidelines to clarify rights and obligations of independent researchers, and a focus on PA management oriented research.

Contact: R. Sukumar, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560

012, Karnataka. Ph: (080) 334 0985 or 334 4411 extn. 2506; Fax: (080) 334 1683.

Sethumadhavan of the Nature Lovers Movement, Kerala, has suggested the following:

a. Time-bound implementation of the decisions taken by the Wildlife Advisory Boards, and requirement of prior approval from the Boards for non-forest use of forest lands;

b. Take-over of the Collector's functions under the Act by the Boards;

c. Ban on not just hunting but also human interference for specified periods, in Closed Areas;

d. Penalty for serious violations to be increased;

e. Courts to take cognizance of complaints made by any person who can show evidence of violation (eliminating need to give 60 days notice to government).

Contact: Sethumadhavan, Nature Lovers Movement, Thiruvamkulam 682 305, Kerala.

Anwaruddin Choudhury of the Rhino Foundation, Guwahati, has urged that revenue earned from wildlife tourism should be channelised back to the protected areas, one-third to be used by the area's management, one-third by village communities, and one-third to be deposited with the state government. A Committee under the CCF or state government should manage this. Secondly, a time limit of not more than two years should be imposed for the settlement of rights. The addition of several species found in north-east India, to the Act's schedules, has also been suggested.

Contact: Anwaruddin Choudhury, Rhino Foundation, Guwahati (address not available). Fax: (0361) 550 902.

Valmik Thapar of the Ranthambhor Foundation has suggested the following:

a. To check misuse of the Act, a system of checks and balances should be incorporated, with decisions on habitat manipulation, water development, NTFP collection, and other resource uses being taken by a panel of experts rather than only the CWLW.

b. When a protected area is notified in the first instance, all rules relating to protection should immediately come into force.

c. No industrial/developmental activity should be allowed within 25 km. of a protected area, and no private purchase/sale of land within a 5 km. radius.

d. No denotification should be allowed without reference to a body of experts.

e. A new category of "national forest" should be started, with people and forests co-existing.

f. Mini-cores or inviolate zones should be considered within PAs, especially in the Himalayas.

Contact: Valmik Thapar, Ranthambhor Foundation, 19 Kautilya Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021. Ph: (011) 301 6261; Fax: (011) 391 6261; Email:

Chandrakant Wakankar of Econet has recommended that:

a. State wildlife advisory boards should include tribals/forest dwellers, especially women.

b. The collector should make special provisions for illiterate people to make their claims, and tribal welfare officers or NGOs should be allowed to represent the interests of tribals.

c. Instead of monetary compensation, alternatives should be provided to activities which are stopped.

d. Roads going through protected areas should be off-limits to private and public transport.

e. Grazing should be permitted in a controlled manner within protected areas.

Contact: Chandrakant Wakankar, Econet, 5 Sanket, Vijayanagar Colony, 2123 Sadashiv Peth, Pune 411 030. Fax: (0212) 331250.

Readers are urged to send in their recommendations, as soon as possible to the Committee at the address below. We would appreciate receiving a copy (at the address at the end of the newsletter).

For submissions, and further details regarding the Committee's progress, please contact: Kishore Rao, Additional Director (WL), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003. Ph: (011) 436 0957. Fax:


Report on Collaborative Management Workshop, Murree, Pakistan

A South Asia regional workshop on Collaborative Management (CM) for Conservation was held in Murree, Pakistan, on May 21-22, 1996. Sponsored by the Social Policy Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and hosted by IUCN-Pakistan, the workshop was attended by NGO and government representatives from Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Afghanistan, along with members of international agencies from Thailand and Switzerland. Most of the participants had first-hand experience of collaborative management efforts, or related policy-making.

The sessions were informal, oriented towards experience-sharing and throwing up ideas on possible joint programmes in the South Asia region. Experiences recounted by participants included CM in forest areas, wetlands, and protected areas. The workshop ended in a decision to form a network for CM in the South Asia region, with a possible nodal agency in Nepal or Sri Lanka (India and Pakistan were ruled out, due to the serious difficulty in traveling/communicating between the two; half the Indian invitees to the workshop did not even get a visa, and the other two got it only hours before their flights!). The network will facilitate information and personnel exchange, training, workshops on specific issues, and research on CM. Funding possibilities for the network are being looked into.

For further details, contact: Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Social Policy Group, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 28 Rue Mauverney, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. Ph: (41 22) 999 0001; Fax: (41 22) 999 0025; Email:

Proposed IUCN Resolution on Collaborative Management

The Social Policy Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) proposes to sponsor a major resolution on Collaborative Management for Conservation, at the forthcoming World Conservation Congress, to be held in conjunction with the IUCN General Assembly in Montreal, Canada. The related sessions will be held on October 17-20, 1996. The proposed text of the resolution urges all IUCN members, and other governments/agencies, to adapt CM approaches, encouraging the central role of local communities, in conservation programmes.

For details, pl. contact: Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend (address above).

WWF's proposed global tiger strategy urges people's involvement

A draft of a Global Tiger Strategy to be issued by the World Wide Fund for Nature - International, takes a welcome step towards recommending the central participation of people in conservation efforts (more than can be said about a parallel document put out by the U.S.-based World Conservation Society). The major focus in the strategy is on critical tiger habitats. A total of 159 Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs) have been identified based on habitat integrity, poaching pressure, and tiger population status, and classified into those which offer the greatest potential for conservation, those with medium possibility, and those with low potential.

Of the several interesting analytical points and recommendations offered by the strategy, the following is worth quoting in full: "Experience has shown that in the face of growing anthropogenic pressures on the remaining wildlife habitats including protected areas...the most successful conservation projects have been those that have been able to empower local communities for management of the natural resource base. The joint forest management' model and the growing model towards joint protected area management' is the direction in which WWF must develop its guiding philosophy for conservation. With the planning and management of landscape level tiger conservation units being recommended in this strategy, people based management approaches, with direct, tangible benefits flowing to responsible communities, must be promoted by WWF in place of the traditional reliance on centralized control by multiple bureaucracies".

The report was coordinated by Thomas Mathew, Director-East and South Asia, WWF-US, who can be contacted at: 1250, 24th St. NW, Washington, DC 20037-1175, USA. Ph: (1-202) 293 4800; Fax: (1-202) 293 9211/9345; Email:


Workshop on Community-Based Protected Area Management

The proposed workshop (See JPAM Update 9) to be organised by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi, scheduled for 22nd July, 1996 stands indefinitely postponed!

For further details contact: Ravi Sharma, Centre for Science and Environment, 41 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi - 110062. Ph: (011) 698 1110, 698 1124, 698 3394, 698 6399; Fax : (011) 698 5879, Email:

Workshop on Dalma Sanctuary, Bihar

As part of its project on Participatory Management of Protected Areas (pl. see write-ups in JPAM Update 9), the Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) is planning to organise a workshop on Dalma Sanctuary, Bihar. This sanctuary, an important habitat for the elephant and a major source of water for Jamshedpur town and surrounding villages, faces several issues hampering its adequate conservation and management: illegal timber and fuelwood cutting (especially to meet the demand of Jamshedpur), inadequate livelihood options for tribals living in and around, crop damage due to elephants, the tribal mass-hunt (sendra) once a year, the conventional non-participatory management approach of the authorities, and so on.

Over the last couple of months, IIPA has been in touch with the whole range of actors in and around Dalma: Forest Department, NGOs, tribals, Tata agencies, and others. Each of these has welcomed the idea of a joint dialogue in which viewpoints and information could be frankly shared. IIPA therefore proposes to organise, in collaboration with local organisations, a two or three day workshop in the first week of August. This is aimed at being the first of at least two, and possibly more, such dialogues. It will therefore have the very limited aim of sharing experiences and viewpoints, and if possible, reaching a minimum common understanding on how to proceed towards conserving Dalma, meeting the livelihood and other requirements of its human inhabitants, and curbing undesirable commercial/industrial pressures.

The workshop will be held in Jamshedpur, on 12-13 August. For precise venue, and other details, pl. contact: K. Christopher, c/o Ashish Kothari (see address at end).


@@ Corbett. Project Tiger, Corbett.

A quarterly newsletter of Corbett Tiger Reserve, brought out by the Reserve authorities as part of its ecodevelopment awareness programme. Carries information on the state of the Reserve, new management initiatives, news from settlements in the adjacent area, etc. For internal circulation only. However, those interested may write to Rajeev Bhartari, Dy Director, Corbett Tiger Reserve, Ramnagar 244 715, District Nainital, Uttar Pradesh.

@@ Corbett Tiger Reserve : A Guide. Corbett Foundation. 1996.

A slim booklet with information on Corbett Tiger Reserve, Jim Corbett, eco-tourism, activities of the Corbett Foundation in villages of the surrounding area, and useful checklists of flora and fauna of the Reserve. Includes an approach map and an outline map of Corbett Tiger Reserve.

Contact: Corbett Foundation, N-37 Ist Fl., Panchshila Park, Ne Delhi 110 017. Ph: (011) 644 4016;646 2011; Fax: (011) 644 7564.

@@ Tiger Link News

Tiger Link is a loose coalition of persons working on tiger conservation and includes NGOs, Forest Department officers, wildlife biologists, lawyers and other interested individuals. Tiger Link News is their newsletter, available only to Tiger Link participants, and carries information from India and abroad on tiger conservation and related issues.

Contact: Ranthambhor Foundation, 19 Kautilya Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021. Ph: (011) 301 6261; Fax: (011) 301 9457.

@@ Mining : Threat to Ecological Balance in Jamva Ramgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan. Amarjeet Kaur. 1996.

As reported in JPAM Update 9, illegal mining severely threatens the Jamva Ramgarh Sanctuary in Rajasthan. This unpublished report gives the precise extent of the threat. The author is a researcher of the School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Contact: Rajendra Singh, Tarun Bharat Sangh, Bhikampura-Kishori, via Thanagazi 301 022, Dist. Alwar, Rajasthan. Ph: (014652) 4443.

@@ Protection of Nature Parks : Whose Business? Centre for Science and Environment. 1996.

Proceedings of a debate held in Delhi on who should protect India's national parks and sanctuaries: the bureaucracy or the people? The debate included wildlife scientists, activists, community representatives, and researchers.

Contact: Centre for Science and Environment, 41 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 062. Ph: (011) 698 1110; Fax: (011) 698 5879; Email:

@@ In Danger. Paola Manfredi (ed). Ranthambhor Foundation. In press.

The book discusses the relationship between people, endangered habitats and wildlife. The book forms part of an attempt by Ranthambhor Foundation to try and bridge the widening gap between nature, protected areas and people.

Contact: Ranthambhor Foundation, 19 Kautilya Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021. Ph: (011) 301 6261; Fax: (011) 301 9457.

@@ Protected Areas, Forest Dwellers and Ecodevelopment. Dr. Vikram Soni. Undated.

This paper looks at the ongoing World Bank-GEF ecodevelopment initiatives in protected areas. The author questions the viability of such an initiative and suggests the need for a comprehensive change in outlook towards conservation.

Contact: Dr. Vikram Soni, UGC Professor, Theory Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012.

@@ Dossier on Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre. FIAN International. Undated.

A 24 page document highlighting issues surrounding the controversial Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre. The Zoo is proposed to be located 30 km from Coimbatore city, in the Western Ghats close to the Tamil Nadu-Kerala border. Its aim is to recreate a mosaic of ecosystems with representative flora and fauna of the Western Ghats. The document alleges forcible eviction of tribals, illegal land acquisition and other human rights violations by the Coimbatore Zoological Society. Food First Information and Action Network (FIAN), is an international human rights organisation, founded in 1986 to promote the right to food.

Contact: FIAN International Secretariat, PO Box 102243, D-69012 Heidelberg, Germany.

JPAM Update is produced every two months as a follow up to the workshop on Exploring the Possibilities of Joint Protected Area Management (JPAM), organised at IIPA, New Delhi, in September 1994.

JPAM Update 10was prepared by Suniti K. Jha, Ashish Kothari and Farhad Vania. Ideas, comments, news and information may please be sent to Ashish Kothari, Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002. Ph: (011) 331 7309; Fax: (011) 331 9954; Email:

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