X-within-URL: http://login.eunet.no/~presno/bok/v6.html


The Online World resources handbook's text on paper, disk and in any other electronic form is © copyrighted 1995 by Odd de Presno.




The procedure of connecting to a remote computer, as an anonymous or guest user, to transfer files back to your computer. Usually, you are asked to logon using the identity "anonymous," and to use your email address as a password. (See FTP below for more information.)


An electronic directory service for locating information throughout the Internet. You can use Archie to locate files on anonymous ftp archive sites, other online directories and resource listings. It is useful for finding free software, and in particular if looking for a specific file.

Archie offers access to the "whatis" description database. This database contains descriptions that include the name and a brief synopsis of the large number of public domain software, datasets and informational documents located on the Internet.

This book emphasizes email access to Archie. You can also reach archie servers by telnet to one of the following addresses:

    archie.au          Australian server
    archie.mcgill.ca   Canada
    archie.doc.ic.ac.uk    England
    archie.funet.fi                         Finland
    archie.th-darmstadt.de  Germany
    archie.cs.huji.ac.il     Israel
    archie.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp   Japan
    archie.sogang.ac.kr    Korea
    archie.nz          New Zealand
    archie.luth.se                          Sweden
    archie.ncu.edu.tw   Taiwan
    archie.rutgers.edu     U.S.A.
Archie is also available by gopher. Example:



An email-based file transfer facility offered by some systems connected to the Internet. Try send mail to archie@ with the word "help" in the subject. Example: archie@archie.nz.


means the amount of frequencies a device can handle. The amount of bandwidth a channel is capable of carrying tells you what kinds of communications can be carried on it. In computer-mediated communications, bandwidth is often used when talking about conference users' capacity for reading, digesting and responding to conference items.


is a multipurpose WorldWideWeb (WWW) browser that permits you to retrieve information from the Internet in an easy-to-use, simplified hypermedia environment. Cello supports WWW, FTP, Gopher, CSO, Telnet and Usenet News, as well as WAIS and a variety of other protocols (eg. TechInfo, HyTelnet) through external gateways.

Cello runs in the Microsoft Windows environment, and can be used over low- speed dialup SLIP, pseudo-SLIP, and PPP connections. To run Cello, you also need to have a Winsock package installed.

The system is available on ftp://ftp.law.cornell.edu/pub/LII/Cello/

Take the file cello.zip. You may also want one or more of the graphics/Postscript viewers/sound players to be found in that directory.


Video Conferencing over the Internet. Macintosh and Windows software plus extensive readme files are available at:



is a popular email system for MS-DOS and Macintosh computers that requires a WinSock v1.1 compliant TCP/IP stack. Free versions are widely available throughout the net. Write eudora-sales@qualcomm.com for information about a commercial version.


"Frequently Asked Questions" are information files about services on the Internet, and a wide range of other topics. They are useful pointers to not only resources but also a fairly reliable source of answers that have been tested by real users.

FAQs can be found all over the Internet. The most common place to find FAQs are in USENET newsgroups. Many newsgroups have a FAQ specific to the subject of the newsgroup. It is also common, in some newsgroups, to have several FAQs on different, pertinent subjects.

A list of FAQ documents is posted every four to six weeks to the Usenet newsgroup news.announce.newusers. By August 1994, there were over 1960 different FAQ documents.

Browse the FAQs on these Web addresses:



or retrieve them by email from these services using the WWW by email service (see under WWW below). You can search (and read) Usenet FAQS on URL:


Many FAQs are also available via a Veronica search of gopher space. Unfortunately, some gopher maintainers do not update their collection of FAQs on a regular basis.

All FAQs are also available by email from listserv@cc1.kuleuven.ac.be. For an index of available FAQs, put the command GET NETFAQS FILELIST in the body of your mail.

Note: You may find The Stanford Netnews Filtering Service (Chapter 11) a clever way of keeping track of important Usenet FAQs. For example, you may try the search term "australia/oz-net-faq" to keep track of the "Network Access in Australia FAQ."


A program that returns information about registered users on a host that is directly connected to the Internet via TCP/IP. You cannot use finger to find user addresses on BITNET or UUCP, or any other networks gatewayed to the TCP/IP Internet.

Finger may be useful before starting chats (known on the Internet as "talk"), to check your assumption of a person's email address, to learn more about a person, or to get other kinds of information.

To use finger via telnet, enter the command telnet 79 Example: telnet csd4.csd.uwm.edu 79 (where is the place you are fingering. Once connected, type the username.

For finger by email, write with Subject: #finger name@site.domain . My address, opresno@extern.uio.no, is at a site.domain called ulrik.uio.no. In this case, use #finger opresno@ulrik.uio.no .

There are some inventive applications, where finger is being used as a general information system. For example, finger help@dir.su.oz.au for information about how to search some databases by finger. Finger to normg@halcyon.halcyon.com for weekly U.S. TV ratings according to the Nielsen rating system, and to solar@xi.uleth.ca for 24-hour solar x-ray flare activity reports.

For the Finger FAQ, send email to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu containing the following: send usenet/news.answers/signature_finger_faq . On the WWW:



A program on the Internet for sending and receiving files to and from a remote computer to your local host. FTP lets you connect to many remote computers, as an anonymous or guest user, to transfer files back to your computer.

FTP only lets you list file directories on foreign systems, get or retrieve files. You cannot browse menus, send email, or search databases.

The easiest way is to use ftp with a World Wide Web browser program like Mosaic. In this case, you just give the program a command line like this:


The codes after the "//" show first the host name, then the directory, and finally the file name of the desired file.

Many users do it by typing ftp at their system prompt, login on the remote system, and then ask for the file they want to receive. It transfers to their local host machine. (For more on this, read under "Internet" in Appendix 1.)

In the latter case, unless their computer is directly connected to the Internet, the retrieved file will then have to be transferred from their host machine to their personal computer.

Where ftp or WWW is not available, you may also use FTPMAIL (chapter 12).

For ftp via Gopher, try

Type=1 Name=Popular FTP Sites via Gopher Path=1/FTP Searches/Popular FTP Sites via Gopher Host=gopher.tc.umn.edu Port=70 URL: gopher://gopher.tc.umn.edu:70/11/FTP Searches/Popular FTP Sites via Gopher

There is a "FTP Frequently Asked Questions" with interesting background information (see FAQ above).


File Service Protocol.


"For Your Information." On the Internet, a subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards or descriptions of protocols.

Online FYI copies are available in the ftp://nic.ddn.mil/fyi directory.

FYIs may also be requested by email to SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL with a subject line of "FYI ##" for text versions or a subject line of "FYI ##.PS" for PostScript versions.

To get a list of available documents (the FYI index), the subject line of your message should read "FYI index."

Also, check out the sites carrying RFCs (see below).


A global information service. It works from a top-level subject-oriented menu system that accesses other information services across the Internet. You can be viewing a color photograph of an ancient Chinese vase stored on a computer in Taiwan, and, on a moment's notice, "be" in the UK, retrieving names and dates from a historical database. Gopher combines a finding and fetching capability in one tool.

Gopher gets information from certain locations on the Internet to which it is connected, and brings the information to your computer. It can get information via other Gophers at other locations connected to yet other hosts. The Telneting or file transfer protocols are transparent to the user.

To access gopher services, you run a browser program. The browser reads documents, and can fetch documents and files from other sources. There are services that let you fetch gopher information by electronic mail (see Gophermail below).

"Common Questions and Answers about the Internet Gopher" are posted to the Usenet newsgroups comp.infosystems.gopher, comp.answers, and news.answers every two weeks. (See FAQ above.)

The Online World handbook's support forum files are on the gopher address login.eunet.no (URL: gopher://login.eunet.no/11/1. You can also telnet to login.eunet.no, login: gopher).

On the Internet, you will often see pointers to Gopher sources given like this:

   Name=  United States GOVERNMENT Gophers
   URL: gopher://peg.cwis.uci.edu:7000/11/gopher.welcome/peg/GOPHERS/gov
If you are not using a communications program that can use this information directly, then try to deduct the information from URL line. Here, it translates into 'gopher peg.cwis.uci.edu 7000' , select peg / gophers/ gov.

If the gopher command is not available on your system, then you can sometimes telnet to the gopher site, and login as 'gopher' or 'info'.

Connect to gopher://boombox.micro.umn.edu for more information. To follow gopher developments, subscribe by mail (SUB Your-Full-Name) to gopher-news-rquest@boombox.micro.umn.edu

If in an exploratory mood, point your Internet browser at gopher://cwis.usc.edu/11/Other_Gophers_and_Information_Resources

The choices include: How to use Gopher (free course), Guides to Internet Resources, Gophers by Subject, Gophers by Location, Gophers by Keyword Search (Veronica), Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) databases, and more.

To search Popular FTP Sites via Gopher, connect to gopher://gopher.tc.umn.edu/11/FTP%20Searches/

The gophers of the world, sorted by country, are at URL: gopher://liberty.uc.wlu.edu/11/gophers/other

Read about Veronica below.


lets you use Gopher by electronic mail. Messages containing menus and gopher link information are mailed to you in response to your requests. You reply to these messages and indicate which menu items you want. It lets you use Gopher without requiring a direct "live" Internet network connection.

Send a message to one of the following addresses for more information: gomail@ncc.go.jp (in Japan)
gopher@nig.ac.jp (in Japan)
gophermail@Calvin.Edu (in USA)
gopher@dsv.su.se (in Sweden)
gopher@ftp.technion.ac.il (Israel)
gopher@earn.net (Europe)

Just send a blank message, and a help screen will be returned to you.

GopherMail's options include:

  - Requesting the Gopher menu for a specific host name,
  - Message splitting after a certain file size (for those with a size
    limit on email messages),
  - Re-using links to selected gopher menus by saving them in a local
    "Bookmarks" file.
Binary and Sound Files are sent as uuencoded files.

To perform a search, select that menu item with an "x" and supply your search words in the Subject: of your next reply. Note that your search criteria can be a single word or a boolean expression such as:

computers and (macintosh or ms-dos)


(1) An Internet service offering access to many other services, including university and library catalogues around the world. Prefers VT-100 emulation. (telnet herald.usask.ca. Login: hytelnet)

Read: ftp://ftp.usask.ca/pub/hytelnet/README

(2) A memory resident utility (MS-DOS) that provides instant information on Internet-accessible library catalogues, Free-Nets, Campus Wide Information Servers, Gophers, WAIS, and much more.

HYTEL-L (on listserv@kentvm.kent.edu) is a mailing list for announcements of new versions.


Top-level country codes derived from the International Standards Organization's international standard ISO 3166. For a current list, retrieve the FAQ: International E-mail. It is regularly posted to these Usenet newsgroups: comp.mail.misc, comp.mail.uucp, news.newusers.questions alt.internet.services, alt.answers, comp.answers, and news.answers.news.answers.

You may also retrieve it via E-mail as follows:

mail ftpmail@grasp.insa-lyon.fr
Subject: anything
get pub/faq/mail/country-codes

(where [ ] = optional)


Internet Relay Chat is a multi-user, multi-channel chatting network. It allows people all over the world to talk to one another in real-time.

Each IRC user has a nickname they use. All communication with another user is either by nickname or by the channel that they or you are on. It requires that you use a service that has a direct connection to Internet.

A FAQ file, "IRC Frequently Asked Questions," is posted to the alt.irc newsgroup every second week.

More information about IRC is available by anonymous FTP to cs.bu.edu. Retrieve the /irc/support/tutorial* files. You may also want to take a look at this short tutorial:


Here are some sample IRC hosts:

    telnet sci.dixie.edu 6677
    telnet caen.fr.eu.undernet.org 6677
    telnet obelix.wu-wien.ac.at 6996
           (also on port 6677, 7766, and 6969)
    telnet irc.tuzvo.sk 6668
    telnet irc.nsysu.edu.tw (Login: irc)


Internet Talk Radio. For general information (a FAQ) about the Internet Multicasting Service radio programs, send email to info@radio.com. For a listing of some distribution sites, send mail to sites@radio.com.

A list of archive sites that make the Internet Talk Radio sound files accessible via anonymous FTP is irregularly posted to the following newsgroups: alt.internet.talk-radio, alt.radio.internet, alt.answers, news.answers. They may also be retrieved from


To access Internet Talk Radio in World Wide Web (WWW):


To access Internet Talk Radio via Gopher, point your gopher at:

and select Internet Resources/Internet Radio/Broadcasts/Broadcasts via ftp archives/.


An interactive Internet service that gets menu information from various gopher servers. It is a database of Gopher links, and an acronym for Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display.

Jughead accepts word searches and the search result can be used to access menus on many remote Gophers.

More information is available as



Experimental directory services using intelligent computer programs that automate the search and gathering of data from distributed databases. The concept behind the Knowbot is that it is supposed to be a Knowledge Robot - - something that goes hunting for information on the Internet.

To reach a Knowbot: telnet CNRI.Reston.va.us port 70 . Also, try email to kis@nri.reston.va.us. Send 'help' for instructions.


Free Unix operation system clone for 80386/80486 computers. The "Linux Documents Explained for Newbies" document is regularly posted to the comp.os.linux newsgroup. Dig into this file library for more information:


Start with the current version of the Linux FAQ.

Linux has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management and TCP/IP networking.

It supports a wide range of software, including X Windows, Emacs, TCP/IP networking (including SLIP), the works.


The Interest Groups List of Lists is a directory of conferences available as:


Note that as of March 1994, the file was around 1,400,000 bytes in size.

You can also get it by email from mail-server@sri.com. Write the following command in the TEXT of the message:

Send netinfo/interest-groups


If you don't have a TCP/IP connection to an Internet provider, the easiest way to access the World Wide Web is through Lynx. This text-only based browser works on any VT100 (ASCII) emulating terminal program using full screen, arrow keys, highlighting, etc., and can be found on almost any Internet host.

Set your communications software to vt-100, dial up, logon, and type "lynx" to see if it is available. If not, telnet to ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu . At the login prompt, enter www and press return to access a Lynx browser. Online help is available.

If it is available, just type "g" for go, and then type the URL of the document you want. Type "h" for help.

Even if you have a TCP/IP connection, you may find Lynx faster than most Windows-based browsers for some applications. It provides fast navigation of cross-linked hypertext documents (minus multimedia) over a low-speed dial-up connection. You can even use it with a 2,400 bits/s modem. . . .

A copy of the program, including a release for MS-DOS computers, can be retrieved from



A program functioning like a LISTSERV. For more information about the Mailbase at Newcastle University (England), send email to MAILBASE@MAILBASE.AC.UK containing the following commands:

    help                     (for a general help file)
    send mailbase user-guide (for a User Guide)
    lists                    (for a list of available forums)

   This mailbase managed 403 mailing lists in July 1993.

is another program that organizes mailing lists. Commands for subscribing and unsubscribing are similar to those used with a LISTSERV except that the name is not given at the end of the subscription line. Further, rather than sending e-mail to LISTSERV at the site that houses the list, send to majordomo@csn.org.

For a list of mailing lists served by this Majordomo server, send the command 'lists' in the body of your email message. Add the command 'help' on the next line for a short help file.


The Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions is a specification that offers a way to interchange text in languages with different character sets, and multi-media email among many different computer systems that use Internet mail standards.

MIME lets you create and read email messages containing these things:

    - character sets other than ASCII
    - enriched text (text with markup commands like  to make
      it more readable)
    - images
    - sounds
    - other messages (reliably encapsulated)
    - tar files
    - PostScript
    - FTPable file pointers
    - other stuff
MIME supports several pre-defined types of non-textual message contents, such as 8-bit 8000Hz-sampled mu-LAW audio, GIF image files, and PostScript programs. It also permits you to define your own types of message parts.

For details, check out FAQ 475, the newsgroup comp.mail.mime, and a RFC- 1341 and 1523.

Note: When a MIME message is received by someone on a host without MIME installed, it may be encoded in a binary format (BASE64) and impossible to read. If you have this problem, try the small free utility that is available through the TOW archive. Send GET TOW MASTER (as explained in the preface of the book) for retrieval instructions and file name.


gives point-and-click access to the World Wide Web over a SLIP or TCP/IP connection to the Internet. Mosaic will not work through simple Internet gateways unless you are using pseudo-SLIP software. A direct Internet connection, or a dedicated high-speed phone line is required.

The system runs on X Windows, the Macintosh, and Microsoft Windows, and has integrated transparent access to other Internet services, ranging from FTP to WAIS to Gopher.

Mosaic can display hypertext and hypermedia documents in a variety of fonts and styles. It has support for sounds, movies, international characters,

Mosaic can be retrieved from ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/. The MS Windows version is in the /PC/Mosaic directory. The Macintosh version is in the /Mac/Mosaic directory.


Internet directory services that allow users to get information about individuals. Search by name and organization/location. For more information, send email to listserv@brownvm.brown.edu with the following text in the body of your mail "GET NETFIND HELP".

Here are some Netfind user lookup hosts:

    telnet netfind.oc.com                   U.S.A.
    telnet netfind.anu.edu.au               Australia
    telnet netfind.if.usp.br                Brazil
    telnet malloco.ing.puc.cl               Chile
    telnet nic.nm.kr                        Korea
    telnet lincoln.technet.sg               Singapore
    telnet monolith.cc.ic.ac.uk             England

Usenet netnews are being distributed globally through local servers, called NNTP servers. You should use a local server. if available, for higher speed. Reading programs, like WinVN and Netscape, require that you put the address of a NNTP server in the configuration file. Netscape example:


NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) is an extension of the TCP/IP protocol that describes how newsgroup messages are transported between compatible servers.


A program to test a network connection on the Internet. It can be used to check if a connection to another host is available, when your email seems not to reach a receiver.

Ping sends a message (an ICMP echo request packet) to a specified host, and waits for a response. It reports success or failure and statistics about its operation.

To use ping by email, write with Subject: #ping . This command will ping the machine 10 times and send you the result.


Point-to-Point Protocol. A serial communications protocol for connecting to the Internet by direct or dial-up lines. PPP systems can receive and transfer files without having to use the intermediate host as a transfer and rest stop.

A FAQ is posted to the comp.protocols.ppp, news.answers, and comp.answers on a weekly basis. It should be read by anybody interested in connecting to Internet via serial lines.


enables individual dial-up users of Unix "shell" accounts to use programs that ordinarily require a direct SLIP connection to the Internet. You can use applications like Mosaic and Eudora if your shell account is set up with pseudo-SLIP software.

Oslonett A/S (Norway) distributes the Remsock pseudo-SLIP system. Send mail to shareware@oslonett.no with "info remsock" on the subject line for information. Shareware. Registration US$15.00 (1994).

Cyberspace Development, Inc. (USA) sells The Internet Adapter (TIA). Send email to tia-info@marketplace.com for information, or connect via telnet, FTP, gopher://marketplace.com, or by WWW to http://marketplace.com/. Price (1994): US$25.00. RFC

The Internet's Request for Comments document series. Working notes of the Internet research and development community. A document in this series may be on essentially any topic related to computer communication, and may be anything from a meeting report to the specification of a standard.

Information about new RFCs is regularly sent to the RFC-DIST notification mailing list. Requests to be added to this list should be sent to


Note: Once a document is assigned an RFC number and published, that RFC is never revised or re-issued with the same number. There is never a question of having the most recent version of a particular RFC. It is therefore important to make sure you have the most recent RFC on a given topic!

Details on how to get RFCs via FTP or EMAIL may be obtained by sending an EMAIL message to rfc-info@ISI.EDU with the message body help: ways_to_get_rfcs. For example:

To: rfc-info@ISI.EDU
Subject: getting rfcs

help: ways_to_get_rfcs


maintains a giant collection of public domain software, shareware, documentation and mail archives under the following top-level headings: Ada, CPM, CPMUG, HZ100, MACINTOSH, MISC, MSDOS, PC-BLUE, SIGM, UNIX-C, ZSYS.

All files are accessible from ftp://ftp.coast.net/SimTel/ (in the United States). You can also retrieve them from http://www.coast.net/SimTel/, and from several mirror sites around the world (pick a site from the listing at http://coast.net/SimTel/SimTel/msdos/filedocs/download.inf), from gopher://gopher.acs.oakland.edu/1ftp%3aoak.oakland.edu%40/SimTel/ and by e-mail through the BITNET/EARN file servers, and various FTP-mail servers (see Chapter 12). For information by email, send a message to LISTSERV@VM1.NODAK.EDU with the command 'GET PDGET HELP' in the first line of your text.

For a current list of available MS-DOS files, retrieve the following file ftp://ftp.coast.net/SimTel/msdos/filedocs/simlist.zip. Also, consider subscribing to MSDOS-Ann (see Chapter 4).


Serial Line Internet Protocol. A method for connecting to the Internet. SLIP systems can receive and transfer IP packets over a serial link, such as a dial-up or private telephone line.

IP (the Internet Protocol) is the most important of the protocols on which the Internet is based. It allows a packet to traverse multiple networks on the way to its final destination.

The help file "Personal Internet Access Using SLIP or PPP: How You Use It, How It Works" is available at

URL: ftp://ftp.digex.net/pub/access/hecker/internet/slip-ppp.txt

See "Pseudo-SLIP" above.


A program on the Internet that allows you to execute commands on remote computers as though you were logged in locally. You can browse menus, read text files, use gopher services, and search online databases. Sometimes, you can join live, interactive games and chat with other callers. Usually, you cannot download files or list file directories.

To set up a telnet connection, you need to know the name of the computer site you want to access and have a valid user name and password for that site.

The site's name can be in words, like "VM1.NODAK.EDU," or a numeric address, like "". Some services require that you connect to a specific "port" on the remote system. Enter the port number, if there is one, after the Internet address.

Some telnet sites allow for guest logins. Guest accounts typically are restricted to the types of actions they can perform during a session. Although your telnet session is actually running software directly on the site's telnet computer, you will be running a program that prevents you from accessing the general capabilities of that computer. Once you are connected to a telnet site, you will often see a menu-driven system which is under the control of the telnet site, and guides you through the actions you may perform at that site.

A list of SPECIAL INTERNET CONNECTIONS, with public user names and passwords, is available by email to bbslist@aug3.augsburg.edu. You can also get it as ftp://ftp.csd.uwm.edu/pub/inet.services.txt, and via alt.internet.services on Usenet.

Note: If you get a return message saying that the host was unknown or unavailable, first check if your address syntax was correct. If it is, try later. Also, your telnet address may have changed.

Another common use of telnet is for users to be able to log into their computers from remote locations. In this case, users enter their own user names and passwords and, therefore, have the same user privileges they would have when logged in without using telnet.

Accessing commercial services like CompuServe via telnet gives you the convenience and time savings of not having to log off and on as you move from one host system to another. There is normally no real time cost advantage, unless your location is closer to an Internet node than any of these services' regular access point.

Telnet is not available to users who have email only access to the Internet.


Servers on the Internet offering the SimTel shareware and public domain files by email (uuencoded). These servers include:

          TRICKLE@TREARN.BITNET   (Turkey)
          TRICKLE@TAUNIVM.BITNET  (Israel)
          TRICKLE@DB0FUB11.BITNET (Germany)
          TRICKLE@AWIWUW11.BITNET (Austria)
          TRICKLE@UNALCOL.BITNET  (Colombia)
For more information and a current list of all TRICKLE servers, send a message to one of these addresses with the command "/HELP" in the body of your text.


A Universal Resource Locator is the address of any multimedia resource on the Internet. It is a standardized description of the location of a given network resource, and the protocol used to access the resource.

A URL may point to a WWW page file (an HTML file), a GIF image, an MPEG movie, an AU sound file, a ftp file or directory of files, a gopher menu, a Usenet news group, a telnet port, and so on. URLs identify the type and location of network and local resources.

Many users with interactive connection to the Internet, use remote network resources through local programs. These programs are called local clients, and there are such programs for anonymous ftp, irc, Mosaic, WWW, and more.

The local clients programs often require a terse, machine readable resource addressing format, called "Universal Resource Locater" (URL). It is a draft standard for specifying an object on the Internet, such as a file or newsgroup.

Example using WWW: The URL format resource address is


This tells us:

   the tool: http (see Appendix 4)
   the host: web2.xerox.com
   the path: digitrad
The first part of the URL, before the colon, specifies the access method. The part of the URL after the colon is interpreted specific to the access method. In general, two slashes after the colon indicate a machine name (machine:port is also valid).

A Gopher example: URL uses the following

gopher://nutmeg.ukc.ac.uk/archive/uunet/archive/doc/obi /USG/Health.Care.Security.Plan/report/forward.txt

The URL tells us:

  the tool: gopher
  the host: nutmeg.ukc.ac.uk
  the path: archive/uunet/archive/doc/obi/USG
  the file: forward.txt
A ftp example, showing site, directory, and file name:


A telnet example:


A newsgroup example:


A file example, showing site, directory, and file name:



A service on the Internet. Maintains an index of titles of gopher items, and provides keyword searches of those titles. The result of a search is a set of gopher-type data items, returned to the user as a gopher menu. The user can access any of these data items by selecting from the returned menu.

Example: gopher://nysernet.org/11/Search%20the%20Internet. Select Veronica alternatives from the list.

A FAQ is available at gopher://futique.scs.unr.edu/11/veronica, as well as the choice "Search ALL of Gopherspace (5000+ gophers) using Veronica."

Veronica is also available by email (using GopherMail. See above).


is a distributed text-searching system. It is a kind of indexed online search tool to locate items based on what they contain - usually keyword text searches. It is a powerful tool for concurrent searches of large databases and/or newsgroups on the Internet. First, WAIS lets you search for appropriate databases, and then for information within them.

If Gopher is like looking in the contents of a book to determine what chapters to read, then WAIS may be said to be like looking at a book's index to find a particular subject or topic to read about.

The information that you retrieve can be practically anything, from text to sound to images to whatever you can think up. The information can reside anywhere and on many different computer systems. The WAIS protocol is an extension of the ANSI Z39.50 information retrieval protocol. (WAIS is pronounced "ways")

Example: gopher://gopher.ub2.lu.se/11/allWAIS/experiment/udc/general This gopher allows you to search several General, Bibliography, and Library science databases.

Example: Telnet QUAKE.THINK.COM (or Telnet Login as "wais". Telnet info.funet.fi (or Login: info . Another option is telnet to sunsite.unc.edu and login as swais .

WAIS can also be searched by mail. For instructions, send email to waismail@quake.think.com with the word 'help' in the body of your mail.

There is a WWW content router for WAIS at

URL: http://www-psrg.lcs.mit.edu/content-router.html

The content router provides query routing to over 500 WAIS servers (1994). It is based on content labels which are constructed from WAIS source and catalog files. The router also provides query refinement that helps a user formulate meaningful queries. When the user specifies a query term, the content router suggests other terms that are related to the query. When the relevant WAIS servers are chosen, the router searches them in parallel.

A FAQ about WAIS is posted monthly to the comp.infosystems.wais newsgroup.


allows uncapitalized Boolean searching with any combination of and/or/not, but no parenthesis. With freeWAIS, you _can_ search for "dogs and cats." It also adds truncation, using "*". This lets you easily search for plurals and root words, like "advertis*".

For information on free WAIS software contact freewais@cnidr.org. To subscribe to the wais-discussion mailing list send a mail to


Usenet newsgroup: comp.infosystems.wais


Virtual Memory System. A multiuser, multitasking, virtual memory operating system for the VAX series from Digital Equipment.


An Internet program that lets users query a database of people and other Internet entities, such as domains, networks, and hosts, kept at the NIC (see Appendix 4).

For example, Whois lets you scan through a registry of researchers in the network field to find an Internet address, if you have only the last name or part of it. It will give you the person's company name, address, phone number, and email address. It had around 70,000 listings in December 1992.

. You can access Whois by email to MAILSERV@INTERNIC.NET. Put the word HELP in the subject field of your mail for instruction. You can also access it by telnet to telnet://rs.internic.net, and at


The Windows Socket standard. An application programming interface (API) designed to let Windows applications (such as a Web browser) run over a TCP/IP network.

Requires a direct connection to the Internet, or access to a SLIP, pseudo- SLIP, or PPP server. With Winsock, you can run several applications that make use of the Internet at the same time.

For information, check out the newsgroup comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc and alt.winsock. There is a well-established Windows Sockets discussion list on majordomo@mailbag.intel.com. To subscribe, leave the subject blank, and include the following command in the body: subscribe winsock.

Also, check out http://sunsite.unc.edu/winsock

The FAQ "Windows and TCP/IP for Internet access" contains a list of some shareware and public domain software that can be used with Windows to access services on the Internet. This FAQ is regularly being posted to alt.winsock .

The Winsock Application FAQ can be retrieved by email to info@LCS.com, Subject: FAQ. It is also on URL: http://www.lcs.com/faqhtml.html


A global information service, much like Gopher, that provides top level access down to various documents, lists, databases, and services. This includes resources such as WAIS, FTP, and Gopher.

Instead of menus, WWW uses a hypertext interface with cross links between subjects. You "click on" highlighted words to jump off onto another track. Documents can be, and often are, linked to other documents by completely different authors -- much like footnoting, but you can get the referenced document instantly!

To access the Web, you run a browser program. The browser reads documents, and can fetch documents and files from other sources. For a comparative list of Web browsers, go to WWW Servers Comparison Chart page at http://www.proper.com/www/servers-chart.html

You can also retrieve pages by electronic mail as explained in Chapter 12. These services are mostly for retrieval of text. They cannot deliver pages containing graphics, sound, etc. reliably.

A Frequently Asked Questions file about WWW is available by sending the command GET WWW FAQ to listserv@brownvm.brown.edu. Updates are regularly posted to the Usenet newsgroups news.answers, comp.infosystems.www, comp.infosystems.gopher, comp.infosystems.wais and alt.hypertext. You can also get it at

URL: http://sunsite.unc.edu/boutell/faq/www_faq.html

Examples: telnet www.njit.edu or telnet (U.S.A.), telnet telnet://telnet.w3.org or telnet (Switzerland), telnet vms.huji.ac.il or telnet (Israel), and telnet ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (USA). Login: www .

To search for WWW information pages in the WebCrawler database, point your browser at http://webcrawler.cs.washington.edu/WebCrawler/WebQuery.html

WWW to http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/mkgray/comprehensive.html for a long HTTP site list sorted by domain (geographical area of the world). A list of all registered HTTP servers by country is on

URL: http://www.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/WWW/Servers.html

The Digital Tradition folk song database is available through a WWW server that allows users to search for and display songs interactively using any of several freely available WWW clients. The server can even provide audio of the song tunes for some systems.

This WWW server is located at: http://web2.xerox.com/digitrad. To find out about more, access the above WWW server or email digitrad@world.std.com (Dick Greenhaus)

The Australian National University's WWW server at http://rubens.anu.edu.au offers Art-History-related images. In January 1994, it held 2,800 images with associated short records dealing with the history of printmaking from the 15th century to the end of the 19th century, and a few on the classical architecture of the Mediterranean.

For information on WWW browsers, telnet to telnet://telnet.w3.org.

We have seen references to World Wide Web services written like this:

Mosaic (WWW): http://lanic.utexas.edu/

Note that Mosaic is not the only browser program that will let you use WWW. Lynx is an attractive alternative for dial-up users (see above).

For information about the popularity of the World Wide Web, point your browser at http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/mkgray/wow-its-big.html There is a list of mailing lists and Usenet News groups related to WWW on http://www.leeds.ac.uk/ucs/WWW/WWW_mailing_lists.html

The unofficial newspaper of the World Wide Web is at

URL: http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/Docs/whats-new.html

It carries announcements of new servers on the Web and also of new Web- related tools.

A WWW Development page is available through The WWW Virtual Library. Topics ranges from how to develop WWW pages, to setting up servers, to the evolution of the WWW. URL: http://www.charm.net/~web/Vlib.html For a competitor, check out http://www.stars.com/

A collection pointers to tools, technical documentation, and standards, both current and under development, for World Wide Web and the Internet in general:


For more information

You may start with "Answers to Commonly Asked New Internet User Questions," available by email from SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL. Put the following command in your message's SUBJECT heading: RFC 1325

"FYI: Internet User's Glossary" can be retrieved by electronic mail from SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL. Put the following command in the Subject of your mail: RFC 1392 . There is also a "Internet Services Frequently Asked Questions and Answers" (see FAQ above).

"FYI: What is the Internet?" is available by anonymous FTP as


John December publishes the "Internet-tools list." It contains information about many network tools and information resources (such as Archie, Gopher, Netfind, WWW and so on.) You can retrieve it by anonymous ftp as


A collection of Internet tools and resources is available on the URL:


This WWW page combines comprehensive tools documents, and links to software collections for Mac, PC, and UNIX.

"Where to Start" for New Internet Users is a commented listing of Internet guidebooks and other materials. Retrieve by sending the following one-line command in an email to listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu:



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