Article On Rainforest Information
SOURCE & OVERVIEW
Centre's just released World Rainforest Report. The article
details how computer based informational technologies can
be used to their greatest advantage in the struggle against
ecological impoverishment. The whole RIC WRR, February, 1996
edition can be found at RIC's new homepage:
Using Informational Technologies for Forest Advocacy with an
Emphasis on Papua New Guinea's Rainforest
Computers are a powerful tool for the dissemination of
information. Using his work on PNG forest issues as an example,
Glen Barry shows how computer based informational technologies can
be used to their greatest advantage in the struggle against
by Glen Barry
Significant consensus has emerged concerning the threats facing
the planet's biological diversity and biological health.
Scientists, activists and government officials increasingly are
united in their conviction that humankind's unrestrained
industrial activities in general, and the widespread and
accelerating decline of forests in particular, are degrading the
biosphere. Less progress has been made in communicating to the
general public the consequences of the rapid impoverishment of
biological systems we are now experiencing. This is particularly
true in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and other Pacific island countries.
The question is, will the signal of green thought prevail in
time to make ecological living the norm? How can technology be
used to achieve the ends of maintaining biodiversity? This paper
is meant to enable others with an interest in PNG, the Pacific
region, and/or forests in general, to understand the potential for
informational campaigning, utilizing a whole range of startlingly
powerful information technologies, like relational databases, the
internet and many other PC-based tools.
The creation of networks through which information flows on
specific ecological issues is one way that individuals can make a
difference. And in my opinion; gathering, networking and collating
of environmental information which we have carried out on behalf
of PNG's forests could be replicated with great benefit in most
places, and for most environmental and other progressive causes.
Pick a forest and save it.
Over the past several years, I have carried out research on forest
informational campaign strategies; with particular attention to
how to use databases, the internet, and desktop publishing for the
conservation and management of PNG's rainforests and biodiversity.
This forest advocacy research, largely carried out under the
organisational name Ecological Enterprises, has been action
oriented; building information links and educational opportunities
for biodiversity and rainforest protection, within PNG, and
between PNG and the rest of the world.
Salzman (1989) considers focused advocacy to be a person (or
group) reporting data concerning an area in which they have
expertise and deeply held convictions. This leads to action to
make sure the information is interpreted correctly and acted upon
(Rohlf 1991). Salzman adds, that it is entirely appropriate--and
crucial--for scientists to become focused advocates. This
message is important for PNG rainforest advocacy efforts.
Ecological Enterprises has become a leading information center for
the processing of information of and about PNG's and the World's
forests, biodiversity and indigenous cultures. Our advocacy
campaign's basic premise is that ecological and biological
considerations need to be inserted into virtually all resource use
decisions, forestry in particular, if human society is to have a
chance to stop the reduction in biological functionality of the
world's ecological systems.
I will not attempt to address at length the debate concerning
whether conservation should or should not use modern technology
for advocacy or other uses. Significant adverse ecological impact
of just the resources needed to build computers and supply them
are noted. Nonetheless, I am of the opinion that conservationists
have no option but to embrace informational technologies at this
critical juncture. Computers as a tool, not as an end unto
themselves, must be the focus.
2. PNG's Biological Significance and Conservation Potential
PNG's tropical forests and freshwater wetlands are equal in
biological importance to the Amazon and Congo Basins (Alcorn
1993). Forest resources play a vital role in sustaining the
livelihood of its 3.7 million people. PNG covers 46.3 million
hectares, of which about 34.23 million ha are still covered by
closed natural forest and about half of which are accessible for
exploitation (Lamb 990).
PNG is in a unique position to defend its rainforests. Over 97% of
the land remains under customary land ownership. PNG law protects
the rights of indigenous landowners to decide land use. Many PNG
NGOs and others, Ecological Enterprises included, have carried out
extensive grassroots educational efforts which have brought the
well-documented social and environmental costs of industrial
logging to numerous village communities. Out of such awareness,
both at the village level in PNG, and with many hundreds of people
on the internet, inevitably comes discussion of what development
options there are that don't inherently diminish biological and
2.1 Ecological Alternatives Exist--Forest Loss Doesn't Have to
The indigenous peoples of PNG desperately desire to better their
economic and material condition. Conservation in PNG will fail
unless the reasonable development aspirations of the local people
are addressed. Capitalizing on the customary land ownership, PNG
has tremendous potential for the promotion of land use patterns
that stress long term stewardship as a means of meeting these
A promising eco-timber industry is being developed in PNG. As an
alternative to industrial forestry which degrades the resource
upon which economic livelihoods depend, support of small-scale,
community based, ecologically sustainable forestry and other low
impact forest utilization may be the most effective manner to
conserve biological diversity and economic futures in PNG. NGOs
and landowners are joining together as practitioners of
eco-forestry (small, community based sawmilling under a strict
forest management plan) using 'wokabaut somils', small portable
sawmills. The light, portable sawmill can be carried into the
When a tree is to be harvested, it is felled with minimal
disturbance to the surrounding trees and then milled on the spot.
No roads and no heavy equipment are needed. Only some of the trees
over a certain girth are harvested. PNG can probably never have
enough preserved land in properly distributed reserves to maintain
viable populations of most endemic species. PNG's rugged geography
has resulted in a vast number of microhabitats. The result was a
radiation in species and cultural diversity in each isolated
valley. When vast tracts of relatively unpopulated forest
landscape currently exist, why presume that 90% must still be
cleared to arrive at what will then be preserved? Doesn't the
failure of large scale industrial forestry to bring long term
improvement in local people's way of life, while decimating local
biodiversity, beg for a more farsighted development strategy?
While the goal of establishing National Parks and other preserves
is laudable, viable management systems for natural forests must be
2.2 Wokabout Sawmills
Wokabout Sawmills and other small, portable mills are among the
best tools in the world for sensitive harvesting of trees (Seed
1993). They cause less environmental destruction than multi-
national loggers and ensure local people get better financial
benefits. Seed (1993) estimates that a maximum of 200 new wokabaut
somil operations would need to be established to exclude large
scale industrial logging from all vulnerable areas of PNG.
Ecoforestry efforts using portable sawmills will only be as
successful as their management plans are scientifically rigorous.
These management plans generally allow careful logging on 1000
acres (about 20 acres a year over a 50-year rotation) leaving the
vast majority of the land untouched. Once the tree is felled, the
sawmill is assembled over the trunk, and the tree sawn into
planks. The small clearing is rehabilitated and seedlings of the
species taken are planted. Future timber trees are identified,
staked, and mulched with sawdust. The number of cut trees per
hectare is strictly limited, so there will be little more damage
than would occur naturally and be repaired through gap dynamics
(Seed 1994). There is a pressing need to experiment with
regeneration in a variety of alternate management plans with
varying harvest intensities, gap sizes, and levels of
3. The Forest Networking Project - History and Methodology
We have detailed the extensive forest clearing occurring across
Irian Jaya, Indonesia, PNG, and the Solomon Islands. Recent
advances in ecotimber harvesting schemes have also been noted. The
problem and solution have been identified.
The internet and other technologies offer great potential to
communicate internationally and locally, to bring about a solution
to this decline in ecosystem functionality. Ecological
Enterprises' Internet Forest Networking Project has been actively
organizing individuals and communities for six years, with email
bulletins posted to conservationists, government employees,
academics -- getting ecological facts and figures into the hands
of people who are willing to make a difference.
Conservation materials have also been widely distributed on APC's
networks (greennet, pegasus, econet) and their rich
environmentally-orientated bulletin boards. These efforts have
recently intensified with the construction of Gaia Forest Archives
home page accessible through the World Wide Web and gopher
In order to address the clearly unacceptable destruction of the
vast majority of South Pacific forest ecosystem, we have developed
informational campaign strategies which seek to:
1. Organize local forest conservation information in a systematic
manner to serve the needs of community development and empowerment
work in PNG in particular, and in a less detailed manner, the
world at large. This involves the collection, selection,
compilation, sorting and dissemination of information;
2. Act as support and contact center for community actions and
3. Act as intermediary for receiving and disseminating
4. Provide consultation and services to the community and
community-based organizations in PNG in particular, and the world
5. Demonstrate to other environmental campaigners how information
technologies can be used to network ecological information. The
internet has provided the core tool, the development of cheap and
rapid communication between forest peoples and those living in
Northern countries. Such communication presents two obstacles,
technical aspects and cultural differences.
The author has maintained a steady stream of information out of
PNG to the international conservation movement concerning forest
legislation, policy, specific forest negotiations, and local
environmental campaigns. As early as 1989, we were putting out
information from PNG on the internet. At first this was utilized
primarily for fund raising, group writing and campaign
coordination of core PNG rainforest activists around the world.
Only occasionally were items systematically addressed to the
Then in 1991, while volunteering with the Rainforest Information
Centre in Australia as the New Guinea Islands Campaign Director, I
began to type in PNG conservation newspaper articles, NGO
informational releases, and other items for a small private
conference that was once again addressed primarily to a small
group of dedicated activists. This was largely because at this
time it was unclear whether this type of material was too radical
for mainstream viewing; and because expensive gateways charges
apply when econet emails are sent to people on other email
Econet is part of the APC networks, the largest assembly of
on-line environmental information and activists, which connects
17,000 activists in 94 countries. For further information on
EcoNet membership, a nonprofit online system, send a message to
ECONET-INFO@igc.apc.org Econet has a tremendous number of
environmentally orientated computer conferences where participants
'post' items, which are then available for others to read when
they log in, allowing conversations that are lively, global, and
immediate. Dozens of conferences on the internet deal with
environment and development topics (Brown 1994). ;
As the private conference png.campaign within the econet
conference continued to grow, it soon became clear that any
advantages to a "private" bulletin board were being lost as
individuals whom the core campaigners did not know personally,
scattered throughout the globe, were added to the permissions
list. At this time the content of our postings changed from
primarily campaign coordination to the presentation of materials
that would broaden and deepen the movement. Rather than thinking
that half a dozen extremely dedicated individuals were going to
save the forests single-handedly, additional emphasis was placed
on interesting and recruiting new activists.
Since late 1991, basically all materials that have run in the PNG
print media concerning rainforest conservation efforts have been
made digital and indexed. In 1993 we acquired a piece of hardware
called a scanner and a class of computer software known as Object
Character Recognition (OCR) which allows clear hard copies to have
their text moved directly into a word processor where it can then
be edited, put in a newsletter, or printed. It can also be posted
to email list subscribers and to the econet conference
In mid 1993 we started getting more familiar with the internet, of
which econet is but one domain; and realized that anyone without a
paid membership in econet was not getting our information.
4. Current Informational Campaigns
These early internet forest conservation efforts have continued,
and branched out to become involved in the conservation struggles
of various communities whose internet appeals are being collected
from numerous sources for indexing, distribution and archiving. As
well as econet's bulletin boards, many usenet conferences, list
server discussions, and World Wide Web and Gopher databases all
are inputs into what we eventually circulate and archive.
Ensuring local struggles' conservation data is collated and
distributed widely is crucial at this junction as pro-industrial
logging governments and businesses have increased their propaganda
machines worldwide (with their relatively unlimited resources) to
counter and try to discredit the support of the global community
for indigenous people's struggles.
E-mail is a way by which messages can be sent from one computer to
another anywhere in the world through telephone lines. It is
cheaper than phone or fax and correspondences can be captured onto
the computer which greatly facilitates networking and the
distribution. Email has allowed cheap and rapid communication
between forest peoples and those living in Northern countries.
As Brown (1994) points out, "electronic mail has become a vital
tool for those who work on environmental and social issues.
Thousands of activists and organizations around the world are now
using computer networks to coordinate campaigns and exchange
news." Generally, document downloads of 250kb a day --about 200
articles -- are sifted through in order to find the 4 or 5 items a
day which not only report events, but contain information which
would be useful for others wanting to become active in support of
good forest policy in a particular area. About 3 items a week are
sent to the Worldwide Forest/Biodiversity Campaign News email
list, really the best of the crop. About another two dozen a week
are uniformly formatted and put in our document database in the
Gaia Forest Archives, where any individual with internet (gopher
or World Wide Web) connection can access and search them.
The other type of information we frequently network is reports,
documents, manuscripts from organizations and individuals. For
these items, we have been granted permission to network by the
authors and issuing organization. There are many dozens of groups
and individuals that regularly gather and send us press releases,
action alerts and various other information pieces. Most of the
information in the PNG section has been made available
electronically for the first time by our efforts.
4.1 PNG Rainforest Campaign News
Our "PNG Rainforest Campaign News," which now reaches
approximately 300 activists, academics and government officials,
provides very comprehensive coverage of efforts to conserve PNG's
rainforests, approximately 2 items a week (send an email to
firstname.lastname@example.org to be added).
The PNG Rainforest Campaign contact database organizes information
for over 1,000 international supporters interested in PNG
rainforest protection; and for whom we research, write and
circulate a significant amount of information current, activist
oriented forest conservation information. We network PNG
newspapers' coverage of forest issues, local NGO backgrounders and
materials, and international NGO PNG rainforest information.
In addition, Ecological Enterprises typically writes a few press
releases and action alerts a month; pulling together recent
happenings from our other sources, and channelling public concern
within PNG and the World to pressure for conservation action.
Frequently we organize international actions, such as letter
writing campaigns, in support of local conservation appeals. Many
hundreds of environmental groups and individuals, including most
major forest campaign organizations, depend upon Ecological
Enterprises for a portion of their forest conservation
information. National Geographic Magazine , the New York Times,
EF! Journal , Rainforest Information Centre's World Rainforest
Report (many times - ed.) and Rainforest Action Network's World
Rainforest Report and numerous newspapers around the world
(including many in PNG) have recently utilized our data and
analysis for articles on the forest situation in PNG.
What is original here, is that 500 people in communities all over
the world are finding out about conservation issues days or weeks
after it is happening (where it used to be months or years -- if
4.2 Worldwide Forest/Biodiversity Campaign News
Our PNG Rainforest conservation network lead us to spend much time
on the internet, posting and viewing many forest forums. We soon
came to realize that a tremendous amount of worldwide conservation
material was languishing on infrequently visited bulletin boards.
We decided to diversify from our PNG interests and establish a
network of activists, academics and public servants interested in
biodiversity and forests issues in general. Hence, the "Worldwide
Forest/Biodiversity Campaign News" was hatched; as we began to
amplify the best of forest conservation appeals.
Worldwide Forest/Biodiversity Campaign News scans numerous sources
on the internet, including usenet discussion groups, econet's
bulletin boards, popular media and the press, and list servers and
other local forest conservation efforts similar to our PNG
Campaign, to provide wide-ranging coverage, on average 3 items a
week, of the efforts to save the world's rainforests, temperate
forests, biodiversity and indigenous cultures. This list is
currently being distributed to 500+ academics and activists around
Recently, we have been following conservation efforts in Malaysia
(Sarawak), British Columbia (Clayoquot Sound), Guyana, and
numerous others ( send an email to email@example.com to
join). We have been providing coverage on biodiversity decline
across the globe, amplifying local efforts to address the
situation. We are synthesizing down the networked information by
individuals and groups in order to maximize busy conservationists
information inflows. We synthesize out the few conservation gems
which are being circulated from the "noise" in many conservation
forums, serving the function of a filter.
Not every individual concerned about forest conservation issues is
able to spend 3-4 hours a day surfing the net finding materials,
and another 1-2 hours a day preparing them for distribution, and
another 1-2 hours in system design (most lately setting up the
archives, but many years of designing the mailing list format,
adding people, etc.). Much thought has been put into the format
and frequency of postings. Through repeated changes we have
decided that titles that capture the essence of the piece and well
written summaries before the whole item's text are crucial in
allowing list recipients to quickly gauge what items are of
4.3 Gaia1 Forest Archives
In addition to these two email lists, archives of materials,
constituting thousands of informational pieces, have been made
available on the internet through the establishment of the Gaia1
internet server. The archives, entitled the Gaia Forest Archives
(check it out at
http://forests.lic.wisc.edu/forests/gaia.html), provide a range of
materials concerning rainforest and biodiversity.
Materials have been made of uniform format, titled, indexed and
presented graphically in order to make this material available to
individuals that want to become more active in the rainforest
movement; and need to familiarize themselves with forest and
biodiversity protection issues in a particular country.
Data logs of the number of people accessing the informational
archives have been gathered since its establishment. This data
shows that as the information becomes more known and linked, and
thus accessible, that information utilization is increasing
dramatically. In just over 6 weeks, we went from having no
accesses to one hundred a day. Potentially, our ability to
influence the worldwide system upscale has increased dramatically,
as recent weeks have seen a dramatic increase in the numbers of
people viewing these materials. The home page has been hit now
some 25,000 times over an 8 month period, during which time 70,000
documents were downloaded.
5. Information - A Systems Perspective
Given the systems nature of society and the ideas which are put
before the public, the degree to which this forest advocacy
program is successful will depend on whether accurate, well
targeted information flows percolate through the system; ideally
becoming the dominant paradigm, and leading to more actual
conservation, ecological management and restoration of forests
where they have historically occurred.
The discipline of Conservation Biology pays insufficient attention
to the need to better identify sociologically, politically,
economically and ecologically how the the drastic lifestyle
changes necessary to pull human society into sustainability can be
attained. Continued presence of forested landscapes through
preservation of all remaining primary forest and immediate
attempts to restore forest cover where it has historically
occurred is essential to insure that the ecological roles of
forests and their biological diversity remains intact.
The Forest Networking project works primarily at the Worldwide
scale, hierarchically, as only the internet can make possible;
with a nested PNG informational campaign at a lower scale.
Increasingly, we are seeing many other local groups spring up to
gather and network conservation information on a particular
country or forest. International support is crucial if PNG's, and
these other conservation efforts, are to have a chance of success.
Modern computers allow the tremendous ability to send thousands of
messages to every corner of the world. Many newbies, or people
recently experimenting with the internet, respond to such power
through indiscriminate sending of information, but just being able
to send signals faster and in more quantity does not make for a
more connected system. Information must be going to people who are
willing and able to make a conservation statement through their
If the goal of this forest awareness is to have the forest land
conservation ethos become the norm (the dominant paradigm),
critical system connections need to be identified and linked. We
have begun to address the lack of dispersal of information
pertaining to local forest conservation efforts through the
filtering, targeting and distribution of vast quantities of forest
and biodiversity conservation advocacy materials. We have done
this without ever flooding anonymous people with information.
Instead, we started small and identified people who wanted the
information. Both lists average half a dozen new subscribers a
week. "Both the number of host computers and the volume of
information flowing through the system are estimated to be
doubling every five months (Brown, 1994)". Many types of
individuals receive these unabashedly activist writs every week.
Virtually all major forest campaign groups worldwide, the foreign
service desk officer for PNG from the US and Australia, the head
of FAO's forest branch, World Bank, State Department officials,
numerous academics (particularly a substantial anthropologist
network) -- all are receiving and acting upon our information.
We have seen numerous interesting feedbacks as a result. As the
forest and biodiversity advocacy has progressed, numerous
feedbacks and patterns of information flows and impact have been
developing. We also show how the individual, and small groups, can
have a huge impact. Such an individual can be viewed as a
transmitting holon in a systems biology sense. New information
technologies allow a well informed individual the ability to
package and disseminate information, that is send signals to other
parts of the worldwide system, in previously unimagined quantity,
speed, targeted accuracy, and quality. We can continue this
systems analogy by envisioning information flows through the world
as being received by individuals which are receiving holons.
Successful advocacy depends upon identifying from the whole set of
holons (the world's population) the subset that is concerned
enough with these issues (or likely to become so if provided with
the necessary information) that they are willing to become
transmitting holons; or otherwise active conservationists. And
further, targeted receiving holons should be in a position to make
a difference. Success is measured by the extent to which forest
conservation percolates through the total human controlled system;
a component of the larger system, Gaia, and becomes the prevalent
ethos. Many biological systems depend upon informational signals,
be they chemical or ecological, to remain intact.
6. The Mechanics of the Forest Networking Campaign
Having experimented with rainforests appeals and informational
exchange via the internet for some time, we have slowly, and
through trial and error, identified key concepts that are
important for our methodology and that are communicated to
recipients of our forest alerts. It is critical the essential user
understandings be established immediately with the hundreds of
people who allow their mailboxes to be flooded with email appeals.
This informational service is free. All we ask of list recipients
is that they try to contribute an item or two to the list when
possible. Recipients can send items through email to us to be
distributed, or you can send a high quality hard copy to us to
scan into digital format. We network numerous public domain items,
which we scan in from hardcopy and/or find posted around the
internet. These include newspapers, magazines and other public
domain sources. These items, we stress, are to be viewed as
photocopies. Recipients are encouraged to use them as a resource
in their own work, be it academic or activist, keeping in mind we
are just passing items along as is--we are "amplifying" these
stories, and thus acting as a messenger. If you want to actually
publish the item, in contrast to our photocopying, recipients need
to approach the source listed for permission.
This is all put forth in an email sent to new list recipients, and
in the disclaimer accompanying each item. We are not doing this
for profit or commercial reasons, but rather out of a deep love
for all natural things and distress over the vast destruction
being wrought on rainforests, biodiversity and indigenous cultures
in PNG and other tropical and temperate forested areas. We are
bearing witness to what is happening to biodiversity worldwide.
Once the recipients of the list receive the information, they must
decide what to do once they have become aware--hopefully deciding
to act upon their knowledge, and take responsibility for doing so.
During my tenure with the Institute for Environmental Studies'
computer lab, I was instrumental in the actual design, and
configuration of this Gaia1 server. In addition to basic UNIX
installation, this included gathering different modules which
provide different internet server functionality. We had to install
Gopher software, World Wide Web software, and Swish Indexing
software to provide the core functionality of these hybrid
gopher/WWW indexed databases of forest conservation documents.
By far the easiest way to get a WWW page up is having an in at a
University which has the big, fast links to the internet to serve
all the hits that will come in. WWW documents are in hypertext,
which is really just a very simplified wordprocessing sort of
language with simple control characters (remember wordstar?).
There are a number of $10 books with simple style suggestions (ie
how to boldface, etc.).
There seem to be two approaches to getting a web site going; one
is to make it really flashy but little substance, and the other is
to first work on having something of worth when people stumble in.
I chose the latter and only recently have added the flash. The
page should load quickly (not be too big).
There are starting to be a vast number of choices for people to
commercially subscribe to internet services. The big ones in the
US, such as Compuserve and America online are now offering
internet connectivity. Most people can get lots of internet time
for say $20 a month. Increasingly commercial providers for making
your own web page available on the internet are springing up.
Then all that is necessary to get your message across is writing
the hypertext documents in a wordprocessor.
PNG's forests, as an intact landscape bound by evolutionary
history and ecological singularity, will be gone within ten years
if current logging continues. In 1993, log export levels increased
by four times in a single year (Henderson 1993) and more recent
import figures ( Saturday Independent 1995) show logging appears
to have slowed its rate of growth, but is still growing while
being well above the generally accepted sustainable yields.
Conservation needs to occur now, or we will lose this startling
display of evolutionary diversification forever.
Inserting what we already know about ecology and biological
diversity into land use decisions is essential if a transition to
sustainable livelihoods is to occur in PNG, and also in the
already overdeveloped world.
Alcorn, Janis B. 1993. PNG Conservation Needs Assessment. The
Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, D.C.
Aplet, Gregory H.; Johnson, Nels; Olson, Jeffrey T., and Sample,
V. Alaric (eds.) 1993. Defining Sustainable Forestry. Island
Press, Washington, D. C.
Brown, Lester. (ed.) 1994. State of the World. Chapter 6, Using
Computers for the Environment. W. W. Norton & Company, New
Grumbine, R. Edward. 1994. What is Ecosystem Management?
Conservation Biology. 8(1): 27-38.
Hartshorn, Gary S. 1990. An Overview of Neotropical Forest
Dynamics. Four Neotropical Rainforests. Yale University Press, New
Haven and London: 585-599.
Henderson, Max. 1993. Ol Draipela Diwai I Lus Pinis. PNG NGO
Lamb, D. 1977. "Conservation and Management of Tropical
Rainforest: A Dilemma of Development in PNG," Environmental
Conservation 4 (2).
Leslie, A.J. 1977. Where contradictory theory and practice
coexist. Unasylva 29: 2-17.
Primack, Richard B. 1993. Essentials of Conservation Biology.
Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusett.
Mabberley, D.J. 1992. Tropical Rain Forest Ecology. Chapman &
Hall, New York.
Rohlf, Danial J. 1991. Six Biological Reasons Why the Endangered
Species Act Doesn't Work--And What to Do About It. Conservation
Biology 5(3): 273-282.
Salzman, J.E. 1989. Scientists as advocates: the Point Reyes Bird
Observatory and gill netting in central California. Conservation
Seed, John. 1990-95. Personal communications, emails.
Wilson, E.O.1988. Biodiversity. National Academy Press,
Wilson, E.O.1992. The Diversity of Life. The Belknap Press,
This article may be reprinted with acknowledgement of its writer
as Glen Barry, Ecological Enterprises. You are encouraged to
utilize this information for personal campaign use; including
writing letters, organizing campaigns and forwarding. All efforts
are made to provide accurate, timely pieces; though ultimate
responsibility for verifying all information rests with the
reader. Check out our Gaia Forest Archives at http://forests.lic.wisc.edu/forests/gaia.html
Ecological Enterprises || Phone/Fax->(608) 233-2194
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