Energy Conservation

    NEWS at SEVEn
    Volume 4	Number 2	April 1996
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 - There is a Lack of Incentive to Conserve Energy
 - State Support for Energy Savings
 - Electricity Consumption in the Czech Republic 
 - EBRD to Help Boost Energy Efficiency in Hungary 
 - Preparation of EEBW 496 underway 
 - Consumption of Natural Gas in the Czech Republic
 - Finance for Energy Savings in 1996
 - Change of e-mail Address
 - News at SEVEn in Internet
 - Efficient Connections 
 - Wood back as Fuel
 - Competition in Supplying Natural Gas ?
 - Program for the Healing of the Atmosphere Coming to a Conclusion ?
 - The Association for Wind Energy 
 - Company Close-Up
 - Energy Efficiency Events in and about Central and Eastern Europe 
There is a Lack of Incentive to Conserve Energy

More and more, voices can be heard which identify household subsidies for heat and hot water as the biggest obstacle to saving energy in the residential sector. Together with rent control, this state interference is the biggest impediment for those trying to make the ways of supplying energy to apartments more sensible.

In all cases, the residents of apartments and houses rate the level of their life style according to certain criteria. On the one hand, it is a matter of providing appropriate conditions for the interior of the apartment. Such things include heat, cleanliness, a healthy environment, etc. The second goal is to achieve the desired interior surroundings at the lowest possible expense. These two fundamental conditions are often at variance with each other, and the problem is finding the optimal balance between the quality of the living environment and the expenses associated with it. In the given situation, where the supply of heat and hot water represents 80% of the total energy consumed in households, the problem of prices and consumption in other sectors of energy consumption recede into the background. Why, then, does the lack of interest in energy savings persist in the residential sector?

A key question during any attempt to change the existing situation is incentive.

Neither heat-price subsidies nor rent control affects the owners of family houses. Therefore, it is completely natural for them to take into consideration how and at what cost to ensure the desired quality of the living environment in their own apartments. The owners find themselves in a market environment. Here, the discrepancy between set-up costs for energy-saving measures and the generally low energy prices influenced by subsidies on electricity and gas for households and by low coal prices prevents the installation of a bigger number of units which save heat and hot water.

In the case of rented apartments, the situation is much more difficult. What incentive does the owner of an apartment block have to save heat and hot water when he does not pay the bills on them? If, in spite of this, the owner has an interest in investing in energy-saving measures, whether to increase the value of his property or to deal with certain technical problems, he will have yet another hurdle further on down the road. The returns on invested capital are not guaranteed because it would not be possible to increase the rents in the building in question due to rent control. One possibility is to write a voluntary contract with the tenants to make repayments in a way other than through rent. Yet what incentive do tenants have to pay back investments which are not theirs and when the installments will increase saved expenses on heat and hot water? The implementation of concrete projects attests to the fact that considerable heat and hot water savings can be attained by installing a wide array of conservation measures. It is demonstrably a matter of substantial energy savings, with an overall percentage well in the double digits. However, it is precisely rent control with its abundance of legislative obstacles and heat-price subsidies which prevents the number of such projects from increasing further.

An plethora of questions present themselves, for which there are no simple or definite answers. Among these belong inquiries such as:

	* How long can the situation continue where almost nobody either 
	  supplying or consuming heat or hot water in rented apartments 
	  has any reason to save energy?
	* When will tenants stop regulating the internal temperatures in 
	  their apartments by opening windows?
	* When will it be worthwhile for apartment block owners to 
	  consider making long-term investments in their own property?
	* How long will the state, from its own coffers which are filled 
	  through taxation, support certain groups in the population 
	  without regard to their social neediness?
Obviously, in trying to draw attention to the difficulties in implementing energy-saving projects in households, there could be many more such questions. It would clearly be beneficial if we were to run across similar questions in the introductions of other articles. The ideal situation, however, would be to not have to read such articles at all, since there would be no need to write them.


State Support for Energy Savings

Through the Czech Energy Agency, the Ministry of Industry and Trade announced again this year programs using state support to reduce the consumption of fuels and energy. The full wording of the programs, together with conditions for those applying for state support for the aforementioned goals and sample applications, was promulgated in the governmental Commercial Bulletin on 21 February 1996.

As in the preceding year, 200 million crowns were made available to these programs. The basic spheres of activity of these programs were divided into several independent parts. In total, eight programs were announced. These contain an entire series of subprograms specifying the exact use of state support.

This year, programs to support technical measures to reduce consumption of fuels and energy in buildings and apartments, to use renewable and non-traditional sources of energy, and to initiate consultations in the sphere of energy consumption are again under consideration. However, the overall breakdown is different, and concerns the following topics:

	1. Heat-supply and hot domestic water systems in  apartment 
	   buildings and apartment
	2. School facilities
	3. Hospital facilities
	4. Public and commercial buildings
	5. Using renewable and non-traditional energy sources
	6. Housing units and developments
	7. Industrial enterprises (up to 500 employees)
	8. Consultations and education directed at energy efficient 
	   consumption and environmental improvements

It is necessary to meet the level of minimal savings for customers, In the case of comprehensive measures for residential buildings, for example, this must be at least 50% of the original energy consumption for heat and hot domestic water.

One positive aspect of the program this year is the bigger emphasis that the Czech Energy Agency is putting on the assessment of individual projects. It can only be hoped that this path will lead to improving in the program structure in the coming years and will contribute to increasing the attention paid to energy efficiency by government bodies.

Concluding note: The submission of applications for the program this year was concluded on 29 March 1996


Electricity Consumption in the Czech Republic

In 1989, the consumption of electricity in the Czech Republic reached its highest level ever. According to results from analyses done in recent years, the consumption of electricity in the Czech Republic should reach 1989 levels sometime in the year 2000; however, the chairperson of the board of ČEZ Ltd., Petr Karas, stated not long ago that the historically highest level of consumption will definitely be surpassed this year. According to a ČEZ estimate, the purchase of electricity will increase by 5-8 percent, to as much as 56.38 terawatt hours.

This year, the dynamic growth of small-scale consumption should start to slow down, and large-scale consumption should start to increase. Last year, in comparison to 1994, small-scale consumption increased, largely as a result of the installation of direct electric heaters. The increase was 11.2% over 1994 levels, and 25.5% over 1993 levels. Last year, household consumption reached nearly 21 thousand gigawatt hours; in 1989, it was something over 15 thousand gigawatt hours. Large-scale consumption was one fifth less last year than it was in 1989, but after five years, it saw its first increase, by 3.7%.


EBRD to Help Boost Energy Efficiency in Hungary

A US$ 5 million (ECU 3.8 million) loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, signed in December 1995, will allow the Hungarian joint-stock company Prometheus Rt. to finance its ongoing energy-saving activities and will support the development and growth of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) in the field of energy efficiency. This loan will contribute significantly to the transition process in Hungary and will help to develop a new sector, reduce energy consumption, and increase the efficiency and competitiveness of local public and private sector entities. The EBRD loan to Prometheus will enable the company to invest in energy-saving equipment. The company will use the loan proceeds for renovations, new parts and safety devices, and the operation and maintenance of energy installation in private sector business or public sector enterprises operating in Hungary. The EBRD is the first international financial institution to lend for such activity.

ESCOs are industrial companies which have extensive expertise and experience in energy conservation. They are able to purchase, install, and maintain for their clients (at the company's initial expense) equipment needed to generate significant energy savings. They can also accept the risk of being reimbursed proportionally to the real savings obtained. ESCOs are paid through converting customer savings from reduced energy costs to revenue and use a form of third-party financing. This type of project enables private and public sector entities (such as prisons, barracks, hospitals, and other public buildings) to realize their energy conservation potential. The project will strengthen Prometheus´s business and provide long-term cost saving for its clients through reduced energy consumption, operation, and maintenance costs. Reduced energy consumption will bring environmental benefits by lessening pollution caused by fuel combustion. There will be macroeconomic benefits from reduced energy imports.

Since 1992, Compagnie Generale de Chauffe (CGC) acquired more than 75 % of Prometheus´s stock and restructured the formerly state-owned company, with substantial results. CGC is the largest manager of energy systems in Europe and is active worldwide as the leading subsidiary of Compagnie Generale des Eaux in the field of thermal energy activities and related environmental services.

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Preparation of EEBW ´96 underway

This year, the international conference and exhibition ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUSINESS WEEK will celebrate a special anniversary: from 5-7 November 1996, specialists from all over the world will gather together already for the fifth time. What new things await you from EEBW'96? Developments in the field of energy efficiency show that energy conservation is not just an issue of a purely technological or economic nature. In addition to directly reducing energy expenses, energy efficiency projects are accompanied by a host of other positive effects: from raising the quality of production, user comfort, and happiness of employees and inhabitants, to environmental protection and preservation of nature for future generations. What importance do these contributions have in deciding between energy conservation and other investment alternatives?

This year, in order to create a forum for a wider discussion of this problem, SEVEn will supplement its traditional seminars on technology and finance with a new theme: the philosophy of energy efficiency. How can we bring together economic and non-economic factors so that together they will support a more efficient use of energy? What influence does an individual have on this process - particularly in relation to his managerial skills, communication ability, and business ethics? The technologically oriented seminars will be devoted solely to new trends and developments in energy conservation technology. The financial seminars will address issues of a practical nature: how to effectively present a project to a financial institution; where to turn if you are looking for financing; and how to make use of innovative methods of financing.

Even the structure of the conference will undergo changes in regard to those of past years. In addition to lecture sessions the EEBW schedule will include a new poster session. This will allow participants to become acquainted with the specific results of research work, projects, and programs. It will also offer greater possibility for graphic presentations and discussions among those interested in specific issues. Another part of EEBW this year will be an accompanying exhibition of cutting-edge energy efficiency technologies. Visitors to the exhibition will also note a few innovations: one of these will be an independent exposition devoted to energy efficient households and offices. Exhibitors will again be able to apply for the title NEGAWATT96 for the most energy efficient technology or project of the year.

Contacts: Martin Dazek - conference,
Martina Diduzkova - exhibition, phone: ++42-2-2424 7552


Consumption of Natural Gas in the Czech Republic

Overall, users consumed 7768 million m3 of natural gas last year. Large-scale users consumed roughly 67%; medium-scale users, 10%; and households, 23%. Since 1991, consumption by large-scale users significantly decreased; and in 1994, it reached its lowest level since 1989 - 4618 million m3. The increase in gas sales to households and small-scale enterprises partially made up for the drop in industrial consumption.

Since 1991, the number of municipalities supplied with natural gas increased by 2.5 times. Last year, it reached 1134, and the length of local networks, including connection mains, reached 22,605 km. Residents use gas mostly for heating, which causes seasonal imbalances in consumption levels - from May to September, consumption levels dramatically decline. Industrial consumption also generally reaches its nadir in July.

The three-year importing contract signing in January obligates the Russian firm Gazexport in Moscow to supply the Czech Republic with 8-9 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually. However, as a result of increased demand, other contracts were also signed, including, among others, one with the German firm Winterschall in the first half of this year.

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Finances for Energy Saving in 1996

We would like to draw attention to the fact that, in the second quarter of this year, the third edition of the annual publication "Finances for Energy Saving in 1996" will be released. This publication helps to familiarize the reader with potential sources of financing, and also contains contact addresses and telephone numbers where it is possible to get more detailed information. In addition to financial sources, the publication also contains information on tax breaks, possibilities to get bank guarantees, and insurance.

Thanks to cooperation with the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), this year's edition will be expanded to include foreign sources.

For the time being, this publication is only available in Czech. Naturally, if there is enough interest, an English version could also be produced.

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Change of e-mail Address

Are you connected to us by e-mail? Or would you like to send us messages through this medium? If so, please make note of our new e-mail address:

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News at SEVEn in Internet

Now you can also find the newsletter and other information from SEVEn on the Internet at the following address:



Rotaflex Super - Heat and Sound Insulation

The firm UNION Lesnm brana, with headquarters in Dubm u Teplic in Bohemia, makes its line of heat and sound insulation products under the commercial name Rotaflex Super. These products have a glass-fiber base and are manufactured using modern technology. Production is executed in the Czech Republic under the direction of the American firm Glass Incorporated International.

The factory was established in 1873, and at the beginning is main product was glass. At the end of the 1950s, the production of glass fiber was initiated using technology from Staple, which is known under the commercial name Fibrex. In 1970, a new production line of heat and sound insulation was started in the factory under the name Rotaflex. In 1992, a license for glass-fiber production was bought from the American firm GII. This license meets the strictest quality standards.

This product line fulfills all of the needs of the construction industry. The products are certified and monitored by laboratories in Germany, Denmark, Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. Certification is ready in Poland. The products meet DIN 18165 standards. According to DIN 4102 standards, they are classified under the fire-resistance category A 2, that is, inflammable in use up to 250°C. They have no problems in regard to health and hygiene, are resistant to mildew, and do not harm the environment.

Rotaflex products can be used for the weatherization of attic spaces, heat insulation of floors, heat and sound insulation of interior walls with the use of sheeting, heat insulation of facades, and in water-treated multilayered walls. Another possible use for Rotaflex products is to insulate railway cars, mobile homes, and freezers and other technical equipment.

The product line is made with a heat-transfer value of 0.035 to 0.040 W/mK. To give an easier idea of its heat-insulation characteristics, it is possible to replace 20 cm of brick with one centimeter of Rotaflex. Mats and boards with aluminum foil, paper, and textured-glass surfacing can be made upon order. In addition, products with textured-glass surfacing have excellent acoustic properties.

The company is looking for business partners to expand the use of its products in construction and other sectors.

UNION Lesnm brana, Ltd.
Novosedlicka 125
417 03 Dubí u Teplic
phone: ++42-417-3151, 219 32, 427 80
fax: ++42-417-200 86, 402 27

Electricity Directly from the Sun
The production and development company SOLARTEC, Ltd. was founded in 1993 with headquarters in Ronov pod Radhotm. Its focus is on making use of sunlight for the direct production of electricity. It specializes in the production of single-crystal photovoltaic cells with a high efficiency and long life, and in the sale of photovoltaic applications.

In addition to solar-cell production, the firm focuses on comprehensive customer service, which they also extend to their business partners. It also offers a consultation service and training supporting the spread of photovoltaic technology.

Its other production and distribution interests could be summarized by the following points:
* photovoltaic systems and accessories, among which are:
		*  solar panels (nominal voltage 10 V, output up to 90 W)
		*  regulators with accumulators (nominal voltage 12 V and 
		   24 V respectively, output 40 -220 W)
		*  accumulators (solar and standard lead 12 V)
		*  converters (input voltage 12 or 24 V ss, output 
		   voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, output 150 to 2250 W)
* portable photovoltaic mini-panels (nominal voltage 3 - 12 V, output 
  to 10W)
* low-voltage electric appliances converted to run on photovoltaic 
  systems - wall and hanging lights, pumps, etc. (predominantly on 12 V ss)
* special single-purpose photovoltaic appliances - a solar NiCd battery 
  charger, a solar Pieta lamp, etc.
* photovoltaic cells and sections (single-crystal silicon, with up to 16% 
  efficiency and a size up to 102 x 102 mm)
* customer services giving advice, assessing parameters for solar-energy 
  systems and warranties, and taking care of warranties
Through its activities, the firm would like to contribute to preserving the environment by making use of the cleanest known form of electric energy. In the production process, both Czech and foreign components are used with an emphasis on quality.

At the present time, the firm is building up its retailing, installation, and service network. Therefore, it is looking for partners in the distribution, sale, and installation of its products including its warranty service. It is likewise looking for firms to cooperate in sales and related activities abroad.
1. maje 1000/M3			Your partners:
756 61 Ronov pod Radhotm	Ing. Jarmomr xehak   director
phone: ++42-651-563377		Ing. Jixm Bartek      sales, consultation
fax/phone: ++42-651-563393	

Wood back as Fuel

The municipal council of Vemyslice u Tna nad Vltavou put into operation a waste wood burning unit, with the help of which it is now possible to heat a school building, nurseries, office space of the municipal council, and a local cafe. The mayor of the town, Josef Lejhar, states that he got his inspiration at the Zem ivitelka exhibition.

The town has sixty hectares of forest, and it is necessary to regularly keep it clean. Investment in a boiler fired by wood chips, a backup wood-fired boiler, a wood chipper, and heat piping including radiators reached the amount of CZK 560 thousand, which represents 1/8 of the total municipal budget. According to the mayor, the investment will pay itself back in five years if the revenue from waste-management is not included in the calculation. At the output of 130 kW, the all-day operation of the installed boiler, which is made by the firm jamata Vitljovic na Prachaticku, burns about three cubic meters of wood containing 50% moisture. From each ton of chips and sawdust will originate 10 kg of ash, about which local gardeners have expressed enormous interest.

Contact: Village Council Vemyslice, phone: ++42-334-21737

Competition in Supplying Natural Gas?

The Private heska plynarenska (PHP) joint-stock company was founded at the end of last year. Yet there is already a relatively large degree of interest in its services. Interested parties include, above all, municipalities which have been denied gas connections and those who have waited in vain for years to get connected to the Czech gas system. Among the areas which the PČP would like to outfit for gas in the near future are, for example, the areas around the town Opočno, Dobrušky with adjoining municipalities, and areas in and around the town of Přibyslav. According to a statement by the chief director of PČP, ing. Ivan Noveský, the company guarantees that it will not go over the normal price of natural gas in a given region.
However, there is a problem concerning the necessary business license, which the Ministry of Industry and Trade has not yet granted the PČP. It is not yet clear how to interpret Article 222/94 on doing business in the energy field. The ministry and the new competitive firms have differences of opinion which may even have to be resolved in court. There is a similar situation related to various interpretations of this law in the field of electric energy as well.
Contact: Privátní česká plynarenská a.s., Prague, phone: ++42-2-822820

The Program on Healing the Atmosphere Coming to a Conclusion?

In the framework of the Program on Healing the Atmosphere, state support of 6.1 billion crowns over the course of four years was offered to projects aimed at reducing local emissions (see NEWS at SEVEn, numbers 3/94 and 1/95).

The first round of applications for inclusion in the program was concluded by the Ministry of the Environment CR on 31 October 1995. Overall, more than four thousand applications for project support were accepted. Their estimated investment costs exceeded 45 billion crowns.

Out of this total number, less than a thousand applications will finally be approved; however, more than 90% of the applicants for gas conversion projects will receive funding. Over the course of time, this program has become an auxiliary tool in the development of widespread gas conversion with an emphasis on building up a corresponding infrastructure.

Almost three fourths of the entire number of municipalities in the country submitted applications. Yet only roughly 14% of the municipalities in the republic will receive support.

The environmental benefits will be significant. According to estimates, there will be, after 1997, annual emission reductions of 29,624 thousand tons of particulates, 32,314 thousand tons of SO2, and 5811 thousand tons of NOx.

Despite the fact that many of the applicants will not receive support from the Program on Healing the Atmosphere, the final effects will be positive overall.


The Association for Wind Energy

The Czech Association for Wind Energy brings together 160 individuals interested in both the theoretical and practical aspects of wind energy. On the basis of an order from the Energy Agency ČR, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics AV ČR worked out in 1994-1995 a computer program to evaluate the wind conditions for a random locality on our territory with the marking VAS. This program makes it possible to determine the probable average annual wind speed, the probable margin of error, and the reliability of the data for a given height above sea level and for a given locality, whether in the form of coordinates or as a selected place on a displayed map. These determinations are made by breaking down the surrounding terrain into four categories, from flat terrain to very broken mountainous terrain. It is possible to establish the probable wind-speed profile at a heigth from 10 to 40 meters at a selected wind-power plant which would correspond to the concrete parameters of surface unevenness. It is also possible to determine the probable annual production of energy. To estimate the energy produced in the above manner, output curves for 35 different types of wind-power plants are available.

In the event that it is necessary to make corrections during calculations, a certain familiarity with physical properties of the lowest level of the atmosphere would be helpful. The aforementioned software can be ordered and bought, or it is possible to order only an evaluation of wind conditions of a concrete locality.

Contact: RNDr.Josef Štekl, CSc., Prague, phone: ++42-2-764336



The Association for District Heating and the Foundation for Environmentally Friendly Heating

Five years ago, the biggest domestic heat suppliers decided to form a consortium which is today called the Heating Association, with headquarters in Pardubice. From the original 18 members, its membership base reached 127 by the end of March this year when its plenary session was held. In addition to producers and suppliers of heat, participants in the association include developers and suppliers of technology for the heating industry, design and research organizations, and universities. The association strives to defend the interests of its members and those of the heating industry to the highest degree possible. In addition, the Ministry of Industry and Trade entrusted the association with the mission of representing the Czech heating industry abroad. The association is also a member of the international organization Euroheat & Power, with headquarters in Paris. The association offers services to its members which would not be economical for individual companies to extend.

The Foundation for Environmentally Friendly Heating was founded this year for the purpose of raising public awareness on the economical use of energy and on modern heat production, which contributes to saving the environment through the joint production of heat and electricity. The goal of the foundation is to educate the lay public and specialist communities on how to make the production and management of energy compatible with the principles of the state energy policies and with sustainable economic development. Given that Czech households consume as much as four fifths of their energy in providing heat and hot domestic water, the savings associated with the consumption of heat energy could be interesting not only for the national economy, but also for the pocketbooks of all household end users.

The Foundation for Environmentally Friendly Heating welcomes your support, and is accepting donations through its account at the Pardubice branch of the Komerční Bank, number 19-2513600297/0100.

Contact: phone ++42-40-45678, 42386


Energy Efficiency Events in and about Central and Eastern Europe April - June 1996

Fourth annual exhibition on heating, air conditioning, and ventilation
PalAc kultury a sportu Ostrava, Czech Republic, 17 - 19 April1996
Contact: Agentura 7 - exhibitions and fairs
Phone: ++42-69-660 3288, 660 3289, Fax: ++42-69-660 3284

Eighteenth annual international trade fair on monitoring, control, and 
regulation technology
Výstaviště Praha, Czech Republic, 23 - 26 April 1996
Contact: Incheba Prague
Phone: ++42-2-241 952 01, 241 952 37, Fax: ++42-2-241 952 86

Fifth annual international fair on gas technology, appliances, and 
Palác kultury Praha, Czech Republic, 24 -26 April 1996
Contact: Arrow Trade s.r.o. Prague
Phone: ++42-2-667 100 69, Fax: ++42-2-801 961

International exhibition on environmental conservation
Nitra, Slovak Republic, 24 - 28 April 1996
Contact: Agrokomplex - Nitra
Phone: ++42-87-536 848, Fax: ++42-87-535 330

International fair on heating, sanitation technology, and 
environmental conservation technology
Budapest, Hungary, 30 April - 4 May 1996
Contact: HUNGEXPO Co. Ltd.
Phone: ++36-1-263 6000, Fax: ++36-1-263 6090

International exhibition on rationalization of fuel and 
energy consumption and the use of renewable secondary energy sources
Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 14 - 17 May 1996
Contact: Incheba, a.s. Bratislava
Phone: ++42-7-80 22 15, Fax: ++42-7-80 20 55

Third international housing fair
Výstaviště Strahov Praha, Czech Republic, 16 - 19 May 1996
Contact: ABF Foundation Prague
Phone: ++42-2-2422 9284, Fax: ++42-2-2421 2006

International fair on energy conservation equipment
Výstaviště Brno, Czech Republic, 20 - 24 May 1996
Contact: Brněnské veletrhy a výstavy Ltd. Brno
Phone: ++42-5-411 511 11, 411 521 68, Fax: ++42-5-411 529 99, 411 530 79

Central European energy exhibition
Výstaviště Brno, Czech Republic, 21 - 23 April 1996
Contact: Brněnské veletrhy a výstavy Ltd.. Brno
Phone: ++42-5-411 511 11, 411 521 68, Fax: ++42-5-411 529 99, 411 530 79

Third annual exhibition on heat savings and building reconstruction
Areál Kounicova 67, Brno, Czech Republic, 29 - 31 May 1996
Contact: ABF Foundation Prague
Phone: ++42-2-2422 9284, Fax: ++42-2-2421 2006

Exhibition on ecological technology
Kongresové centrum Praha, Czech Republic, 3 - 6 June 1996
Contact: VUSTE - ASPIS, Prague
Phone: ++42-2-311 4261, 243 102 90, Fax: ++42-2-243 103 68, 242 105 09

Equipment for production, distribution, storage, and consumption of gas
Výstaviště Trenčín, Slovak Republic, 5 -7 June 1996
Contact: Výstavisko TMM, Ltd. Trenčín
Phone: ++42-831-53 23 82, Fax: ++42-831-357 49

Exhibition and conference on oil and gas 
Moscow, Russia, 17- 22 June 1996
Contact: CS Crossland
Phone: ++42-2-478 1680, 478 1683, Fax: ++42-2-478 1687

Heating, tubing, pumps, monitoring, regulation, ventilation, cooling, 
insulation, installation aids and tools, and the ecology
Výstaviště České Budějovice, Czech Republic, 19 - 22 June 1996
Contact: Park Centrum České Budějovice
Phone: ++42-38-434 90, 424 80

News at SEVEn is produced in English and Czech quarterly by SEVEn, The Energy Efficiency Center and is supported by the C.S. Mott Foundation. Circulation: English version - 2000; Czech version - 1000. SEVEn strives to promote energy efficiency in order to support economic development and protect the environment. The newsletter informs members of the energy community about current energy efficiency events and developments in the Czech Republic and welcomes outside submissions. SEVEn is located at Slezska 7, Praha 2. Address: SEVEn, P.O.Box 39, 120 56 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Phone: 42-2-2424-7552, Fax: 42-2-2424-7597, E-mail:


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