Integration of animal production in coconut plantations
Worldwide there are between 10 and 11 million hectares of
coconuts. With the marked fluctuations and long term decline in
copra and coconut oil prices the integration of livestock and
coconuts is economically increasingly attractive. Traditionally
used for weed control in plantations so that coconuts could be
located, cattle (and sheep and goats) are increasingly seen as
important parts of the system. Although there are constraints
particularly related to the level of shade under closely spaced
coconuts, a number of grass and legume species have been
identified which have varying degrees of shade tolerance. Where
light transmission is greater than 50%, sustainable grazing of
pastures is possible.
The paper reviews some of the main production systems and details
animal production levels in grazing and cut-and-carry systems.
Key areas for future work are:
- the screening of new forage species for shade tolerance and
- the focus on systems of coconut spacing which emphasize wide
inter-row areas for increased forage production under high light
- the development of coconut multicropping systems where various
management options are modelled to maximize returns for the
- the increased use of by-products and alternative feed resources
by smallholder farmers.
The substantial potential for animal production from a number of
agroforestry systems has been reviewed by Gutteridge and Shelton
(1994). The plantation crop system with perhaps the greatest
potential for further development is the integration of
livestock, especially cattle (but also sheep and goats) with
coconuts (Shelton, 1991). Worldwide there are probably between
10 and 11 million hectares of coconuts, with more than 90%
located in the Asia and Pacific region.
Integration of cattle production with coconut plantations is
based on the premise that cattle are beneficial to the management
of coconuts and that the combined income of the two enterprises
is greater. In the past, coconut was the main agricultural
activity and cattle management was directed towards reducing
plantation weeding costs and increasing copra production (largely
=66rom a higher recovery of fallen nuts). In recent years the
marked fluctuation in copra prices, both monthly and from year
to year, and the structural decline in copra prices since 1950,
has encouraged farmers to diversify.
Cattle production is one avenue for diversification. It is
increasingly economically attractive both through consistent
price increases and price stability. In the Philippines retail
prices for beef nearly tripled between 1985 and 1992. Although
increases in actual farmgate prices may have been lower, cattle
production compares favourably with other intercropping options.
Similarly the demand for meat is increasing in Indonesia and this
has lead to considerable price increases.
BENEFITS AND CONSTRAINTS
Any attempt to grow two or more crops together, and particularly
to grow one (forages) beneath the shading canopy of
another(coconuts), necessitates some understanding of the
environmental factors involved and the degree of competition
likely. Important factors affecting the growth of forage species
under coconuts are the available soil moisture and nutrients, the
amount of light and the degree of competition between the forage
species and the coconuts. The yield of plantation crops may be
positively or negatively affected by the pasture system,
depending on the nature of the interference which develops and
the net effect on the crop environment. The influence of the
plantation tree canopy on the quantity and quality of light
reaching the ground surface, on temperature and humidity and soil
moisture levels has been reviewed by Wilson and Ludlow (1991).
On the positive side, cattle are important for weed control and
this has been the traditional use of cattle in coconut
plantations. Light transmission in the commonly used tall coconut
varieties decreases from >90% in recently planted coconuts to a
minimum of around 40% at an age of 5-15 years, and then increases
again with time until the coconuts are due for replanting at age
50-60 years. Light transmission obviously varies depending on
variety (with dwarf or hybrid varieties intercepting more light
than the tall varieties), tree spacing and management. Much of
the area of existing coconut plantations is of tall varieties and
often more than 30 years old, therefore light levels are high
enough to support an understorey vegetation. Unless it is
controlled this understorey vegetation competes with the trees
for water and nutrients.
Grazing can reduce competition from the understorey vegetation
by recycling nutrients "locked up" in the standing biomass. A
near doubling of coconut yield was reported by several
researchers when previously ungrazed coconut plantations were
grazed. This was probably only partly related to increased
nutrient cycling; the main effect of grazing being related to a
higher recovery rate of nuts in short grazed vegetation. Negative
effects of any understorey vegetation on coconut yield must be
expected if rainfall or soil fertility is marginal for coconut
growth, although the latter can be ameliorated by sufficient
fertilization. Competition for moisture is likely to occur where
annual rainfall is below 1750 mm, particularly if rainfall is not
As far as animal production is concerned the provision of shade
and thus lower heat loads on animals is likely to have a positive
effect on animal productivity. The nutritive quality of forages
grown in partially shaded environments such as old coconuts is
comparable to those grown in full sun (Norton et al. 1991).
Incompatability of cattle and coconuts is likely to be caused by
unacceptable damage to young trees or interference in the
management of coconuts. Damage to fronds of young coconuts could
be caused by grazing animals and it is usual practice to keep
cattle away from young coconuts until fronds are out of reach of
the grazing animals. The time required for coconuts to grow
beyond the reach of cattle varies, but periods of 3-8 years have
been mentioned in the literature. Small ruminants such as sheep
have been successfully grazed in 2-year old coconuts (Simonnet,
1990). Damage to stems of coconuts is minimal although there are
concerns over possible soil compaction and increased erosion that
may occur when the understorey vegetation is overgrazed.
Some grasses and legumes are more shade tolerant than others (see
Table 1). When light transmission values fall below 40 or 50%
then both production values and the range of species are severely
reduced. In general herbage production (and therefore carrying
capacity) is inversely proportional to tree density (and light
transmission values). Wong (1991) defined shade tolerance
(agronomically) as "the relative growth performance of plants in
shade compared to that in full sunlight as influenced by regular
defoliation. It embodies the attributes of both dry matter
productivity and persistence". The term persistence includes both
the survival of individual plants and seedling replacement.
Table 1 Shade tolerance of some tropical forages (after Wong
1991, and Shelton et al. 1987)
Shade Grasses Legumes
High Axonopus compressus Desmodium heterophyllum
Brachiaria miliiformis Desmodium ovalifolium
Ischaemum aristatum Flemingia congesta
Ottochloa nodosa Mimosa pudica
Medium Brachiaria brizantha Arachis pintoi
Brachiaria decumbens Calopogonium mucunoides
Brachiaria humidicola Centrosema pubescens
Digitaria setivalva Desmodium triflorum
Panicum maximum Pueraria phaseoloides
Pennisetum purpureum Desmodium intortum
Setaria sphacelata Leucaena leucocephala
Urochloa mosambicensis Desmodium canum
Low Brachiaria mutica Stylosanthes hamata
Cynodon plectostachyus Stylosanthes guianensis
Digitaria decumbens Zornia diphylla
Digitaria pentzii Macroptilium atropurpureum
Native vegetation under coconut varies according to the location
and intensity of grazing. Unless there is control of the stocking
pressure there may be changes in pasture composition over time
with undesirable weed species gradually dominating the sward.
Using cattle as "sweepers" or "weeders" without additional
selective weed control measures may control the weeds in the
short term but allow tough unpalatable species to become
dominant. The more promising of the native species include:
carpet or mat grass (Axonopus compressus), buffalo couch grass
(Stenotaphrum secundatum), Pemba grass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum),
T-grass (Paspalum conjugatum), as well as various legumes such
as alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis), Desmodium ovalifolium,
Desmodium triflorum, hetero (Desmodium heterophyllum) and
sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica).
Productivity may vary from low to moderate depending on the
relative percentage of productive grass, legume species and
weeds, particularly bush weeds. For example, in Western Samoa
local pastures dominated by Mimosa pudica and hetero were
considered to be particularly productive while in the Solomon
Islands there was no significant difference in liveweight gains
between improved pastures and naturalized pastures with a high
legume content and consisting of Axonopus compressus, Mimosa
pudica, Centrosema pubescens and Calopogonium mucunoides.
where the aim is to do more than merely keep weeds under control,
so that fallen nuts can be located, then various exotic grass and
legume species are available. Grass species most suited to the
reduced light conditions under coconut palms are sod forming
stoloniferous grasses that form short to moderate height swards.
They provide moderate carrying capacity, allow fallen nuts to be
quickly located, are inexpensive and easy to establish from
cuttings, compete well with aggressive weed species, maintain a
reasonable balance with companion legumes under grazing and do
not compete excessively with coconut production. Such grasses
include Angleton grass or Alabang X (Dichanthium aristatum),
Batiki (I. aristatum), Cori (B. miliiformis), Koronivia (B.
humidicola), Palisade (B. brizantha) and Signal (B. decumbens).
Although Para grass (B. mutica) is popular in the Philippines,
elsewhere it has been shown to be not very shade tolerant and
requires good management under the high light conditions (light
transmission >75%) of old coconut plantations or where trees are
widely spaced (9 x 9 or 10m). Buffalo couch (S. secundatum) and
Pemba grass (S. dimidiatum) are well adapted to heavy shade
conditions in Vanuatu and Zanzibar, respectively.
The legumes most suited to coconut plantations include centro (C.
pubescens) and Siratro (M. atropurpureum), with puero (P.
phaseoloides) and sometimes Calopo (C. mucunoides) used as
pioneers (and as cover crops). However, in some humid tropical
environments Siratro is subject to Rhizoctonia leaf blight.
Legumes that combine particularly well with B. brizantha and B.
decumbens include hetero (D. heterophyllum), D. triflorum and A.
vaginalis. Sensitive plant (M. pudica) should be utilized where
it is indigenous, but needs to be carefully controlled. In
Zanzibar, T. labialis was found to combine well with Pemba grass.
Leucaena (L. leucocephala), or (on acid soils) gliricidia (G.
sepium), can be grown as a double-row hedge (rows 1m apart)
between every two rows of coconuts.
Although there have been a number of studies on the shade
tolerance of herbaceous legumes less information is available on
tree legumes. Leucaena leucocephala has been shown to have
limited shade tolerance. In a more recent study of the response
of six fodder tree legumes to a range of light intensities
(ranging from 100 to 20%) the relative order of shade tolerance
was Gliricidia sepium > Calliandra calothyrsus > Leucaena
leucocephala > Sesbania grandiflora > Acacia villosa > Albizia
chinensis. With the psyllid insect causing serious damage to
Leucaena leucocephala in Bali, Indonesia, psyllid-resistant tree
legumes are required. A trial under coconuts (58% light
transmission) to identify suitably adapted species concluded that
Calliandra calothyrsus, Codariocalyx gyroides, Desmodium rensonii
and Gliricidia sepium warranted further study as forage species
for use in the coconut plantations in Bali. A similar study was
carried out in North Sulawesi where Gliricidia sepium and
Erythrina sp. are commonly used as fences and live stakes under
coconuts. Calliandra sp. CPI 108458 produced by far the highest
leaf yields and other potentially useful species included
Flemingia macrophylla, Calliandra calothyrsus (local), Gliricidia
sepium (local), Desmodium rensonii and Codariocalyx gyroides. In
the drier environment of South Sulawesi, there was little
difference between the leaf yield of C. calothyrsus, L.
leucocephala and G. sepium. This was before the effect of the
psyllid on leucaena.
In Asia, smallholder farmers often have one or two cattle which
are grazed on whatever feed resources are available in their
area. This varies considerably, depending on the available
resources and farming system. In many situations cattle are
grazed on fallow cropping areas before and after rice or other
food crops, and are shifted to plantation areas during the
cropping period when there is little available land for cattle.
Also smallholders have to maximize use of their limited land
resources, and coconuts are usually intercropped with food and
other perennial crops such as banana, cloves, pepper and vanilla,
particularly in areas with high population density. Despite this
intensive land use there are often small areas under coconuts
available for grazing or the growing of forage crops. Cattle are
generally tethered in such intensive farming systems and
shortfalls in feed are overcome by cutting naturally occurring
grasses from communal areas such as roadsides. In these
circumstances tree legumes can play a significant role in
increasing protein content of the feed material, and thereby
animal production. The use of tree legumes grown along field
boundaries is particularly widely used in Bali.
In the Pacific, a large proportion of cattle are grazed under
coconuts. In Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Western Samoa and
Vanuatu cattle have been used traditionally to control weeds and
thus reduce upkeep costs, and to provide an additional income
=66rom extra copra and meat. In PNG a 70% reduction in upkeep costs
has been mentioned and substantially reduced labour costs on
plantations in the Solomon Islands have also been indicated.
Cut-and-carry systems extract a considerable amount of nutrients
=66rom the forage production area and this is moved to where the
animals are fed; particular care is required to return nutrients
to the forage area. Neglect to do so may result in loss of
coconut yield and cause a sharp decline in forage yield.
Grazing systems are generally found in more extensive coconut
production areas such as in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, parts of
the Philippines and also in many South Pacific countries. Some
tethering is used to control animals but the majority of cattle
are herded or animals are allowed to graze freely. A key factor
hampering the development of more commercially oriented cattle
production systems under coconuts is the lack of marketing
facilities in the more remote coconut plantation areas. The
importance of market access for the successful development of a
viable cattle industry in the South Pacific was clearly
demonstrated by Shelton (1991).
The level of animal production reported in grazing trials varies
greatly (Table 3). Average daily gains (ADG) vary from 0.12
kg/hd/day to 0.51 kg/hd/day and liveweight gains per hectare
varied from 44 kg/ha/year to 744 kg/ha/year. Stocking rates (SR)
also varied widely from 1 to 4 cattle/ha (varying sizes) and
stocking rate was related negatively to ADG.
The variation in animal production was clearly related to the
feed resource available. Liveweight gains were lower on natural
vegetation than on improved pastures except in the Solomon
Islands where the natural pasture consisted of a very high
proportion of legumes. In other cases substantial improvement in
LWG was obtained by planting improved pasture. The importance of
legumes was clearly indicated in many experiments. Other factors
affecting forage growth and therefore animal production were soil
fertility and/or fertilizer strategy, and light transmission. In
general terms, as indicated above, yield of forages is linearly
related to the amount of light available, provided that other
factors affecting growth are not limiting. Thus in a coconut
plantation with 50% light transmission, the yield of a highly
productive grass like Panicum maximum will be approximately 50%
of the yield achieved in full sunlight. Animal production is
likely to be affected similarly by light transmission.
Small backyard dairy and beef units are common in Bali,
Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand, with the grasses Panicum
maximum and Pennisetum purpureum being supplemented with
leucaena, gliricidia and various by-products. These are widely
used in the tropics because of the small size of holdings and the
limited grazing area, the fragmentation of land holdings, a lack
of fencing in cropping areas and the low cost of labour. These
grasses are particularly suitable for plantation crops when the
trees are young and vulnerable to damage from grazing animals.
Animal production in smallholder cut-and-carry systems is
difficult to assess. Rika et al. (1981) compared the growth rates
of 12 Bali cattle leased individually to local farmers and fed
natural vegetation, banana stem and coconut leaf (a local feeding
system) with the growth rates of cattle grazing improved pasture
in Bali. Average daily gain of cattle in the local feeding system
was similar to that at the highest stocking rate in the grazing
trial but considerably lower than those obtained at lower
stocking rates where animals were able to choose their own diets.
Table 3 Cattle production from grazing experiments under coconut
Country Pasture Light LWG Stocking ADG
transmiss (kg/ rate (kg/ha/d)
-ion(%) ha/yr) (b/ha)
Solomon natural 60 235-345 1.5-3.5 0.27-0.40
Islands improved 60 227-348 1.5-3.5 0.27-0.40
(2900 mm) natural 60 219-332 1.5-3.5 0.26-0.40
improved 62 206-309 1.5-3.5 0.23-0.35
Western natural 50 148 1.8 0.22
Samoa improved 50 225-305 1.8-2.2 0.33-0.47
(2900 mm) natural 50 127 2.5 0.14
improved 70-84 273-396 2.5 0.30-0.43
natural 70-84 401-466 4.0 0.27-0.32
improved 70-84 421-744 4.0 0.29-0.51
Indonesia improved 79 288-505 2.7-6.3 0.22-0.29
Philipp- improved n.a. 169-315 1.0-2.0 0.43-0.47
ines improved n.a. 130-155 1.0-3.0 0.14-0.36
(>2000mm) improved n.a. 137-306 1.0-3.0 0.20-0.37
natural n.a. 51 1.0 0.14
improved n.a. 91-146 1.0-2.0
Thailand natural n.a. 44 1.0 0.12
(1600mm) improved n.a. 94-142 1.0-2.5 0.16-0.26
Vanuatu improved n.a. 175 1.5 0.32
(>1500mm) natural n.a. 250-285 2.6-3.0 0.26
improved n.a. 550 3.0 0.50
Annual rainfall in brackets
n.a. - not available.
Source: Adapted from Shelton (1991)
However, a comparison of a cut-and-carry feedlot system, a
semi-feedlot system, and free grazing for beef cattle in Johore,
Malaysia revealed higher daily gains for stall-fed animals (Sukri
and Dahlan, 1986). Trials were carried out with smallholders in
West Johore, where coffee was grown as an intercrop under
coconuts. Feed rations consisted of coffee by-products (30%),
palm kernal cake (37%), urea (2%) and mineral-vitamin premix (1%)
and various native forage species (Paspalum, Axonopus,
Ottochloa, Ischaemum and Brachiaria) for grazing. The animals
under the feedlot system were confined and fed the feed ration
ad lib.; the semi-feedlot treatment involved tethering and
grazing on the native grasses for 5 hours daily before the
animals received the same feed ration ad lib.; the free-grazing
animals were tethered to graze the native grasses. Average daily
gains of the animals in the feedlot, semi-feedlot and
free-grazing systems were 0.48, 0.37 and 0.15 kg respectively
(over period of 178 days). The feedlot and semi-feedlot groups
were extended for a further 116 days (trial 2) with average daily
gains of 0.60 and 0.38 kg/animal respectively An economic
evaluation demonstrated that gross profit was higher for the
feedlot animals than the semi-feedlot or grazing groups. It was
concluded that feedlot and semi-feedlot systems had great
potential for increasing beef production among smallholder
farmers and should avoid the major problem of low feed
availability (and quality) in dry spells.
In Timor tethered bulls fatten at an excellent rate of over 1
kg/day on an ad lib. diet of leucaena leaves plus a metre of
banana stem for moisture each day. The arrival of psyllids has
reduced leucaena growth in this system and leucaena has been
replaced by other tree legumes such as Sesbania grandiflora,
Acacia villosa and Gliricidia sepium. However, in all
cut-and-carry systems animal performance depends on the skill and
experience of the farmer in ensuring that forages and feeds are
provided according to the animal requirements.
The present emphasis in coconut areas is on planting
high-yielding hybrids (mainly in large commercial plantations)
and/or on coconut based farming systems where complementary
enterprises such as livestock are integrated with coconuts to
increase productivity per unit area, increase employment
opportunities and to provide a buffer against low and fluctuating
copra prices. Increasingly, new management techniques have been
adopted, improved grasses and legumes have been planted to
increase the animal carrying capacity and in smallholder systems
increased use is being made of by-products and forage production
is being integrated with food crops.
What is likely to happen in the future and can we learn from the
experience of livestock integration with other tree crops?
i) For the immediate future the large majority of coconut areas
will remain planted at traditional spacings, so there is a
continuing need to identify grass and legume species for reduced
light situations (and especially < 50% light transmission).
ii) Where high yielding hybrids are planted at even closer
spacings than those traditionally used it remains to be seen if
intergrazing is feasible and catch cropping prior to canopy
closure may be the main intercropping activity. With the
positive results from grazing sheep under coconuts in Vanuatu the
integration of sheep at low stocking rates may be feasible, with
the same need for low light species as in (i).
iii) As long as high prices were obtained for rubber, palm oil
and copra and coconut oil then any use of ruminants was as an aid
to the management of the key enterprise, the plantation crop.
With the fall in prices for rubber, palm oil, copra and coconut
oil in recent years there has been more interest in integrating
tree crops and livestock and in developing systems where the
combined income from the two enterprises is significantly greater
than that obtained from the plantation crop alone.
iv) In many areas seasonality of forage production is a problem.
There are large quantities of alternative feed sources which can
be used as supplements including banana, cassava, cocoa pod husk,
copra cake, oil palm products, rice by-products, sugar cane
residues and by-products etc.
Coconut plantations offer an excellent opportunity for the
integration of cattle and a tree crop, particularly in the less
populated areas where the land under coconuts is not fully
utilized and is weed covered.
Given the appropriate tree spacing there are few major
constraints and provided that adapted forages are planted to
ensure a high quality sustainable feed resource, cattle
production under coconuts can be a profitable and sustainable
form of land use.
Unfortunately in many areas tree spacing is such that reduced
light availability restricts the range of forage species and
their productivity. Also, there has been little work on
developing farming systems which allow farmers to choose from
various management options. While research work is ongoing to
identify alternative feed sources there is need to develop and
apply low input systems in many coconut areas where poor farmers
are faced with feed shortages especially in the dry season.
Areas where future work needs to be focused include:
i) The identification of forage species better adapted to the low
light environment of coconut plantations (<50%) which are capable
of persisting under heavy grazing pressure.
ii) The adoption of coconut planting (rectangular) configurations
with wide between-row spacing which allow for maximum light
penetration, encourage cultivation, improve forage yields and to
which to a large extent forage species already available would
be well adapted.
iii) More detailed and systematic studies of the
pasture-livestock-crop-coconut system and to develop management
options for the farmer.
iv) Better utilization of existing by-products and alternative
feed resources for livestock in the smallholder coconut based
v) Continued efforts to identify alternative tree legumes to
supplement leucaena where infestation of the leucaena psyllid has
devastated production and severely affected smallholder cattle
Gutteridge, R.C. and Shelton, H.M. (1994). Animal Production
Potential of Agroforestry Systems. In Copland, J.W., Djajanegra,
A. and Sabrani, M. (ed) Agroforestry and Animal Production for
Human Welfare. ACIAR Proceedings No. 55, 7-16.
Norton, B.W., Wilson, J.R., Shelton, H.M. and Hill, K.D. (1991).
The effect of shade on forage quality. In: Proc. of Workshop
Forages for Plantation Crops, Shelton, H.M. and Stur, W.W. (ed.).
Sanur Beach, Bali, Indonesia 27-29 June 1990. ACIAR Proc. No.
Rika, I.K., Nitis, I.M. and Humphreys, L.R. (1981). Effects of
stocking rate on cattle growth, pasture production and coconut
yield in Bali. Trop. Grasslands 15 (3), 149-157.
Shelton, H.M. (1991). Productivity of cattle under coconuts.
In: Proc. of workshop Forages for Plantation Crops, Shelton,
H.M. and Stur, W.W. (ed.). Sanur Beach, Bali, Indonesia 27-29
June 1990. ACIAR Proc. No. 32, 92-96.
Shelton, H.M., Humphreys, L.R. and Batello, C. (1987). Pastures
in the plantations of Asia and the Pacific: performance and
prospect. Tropical Grasslands 21(4), 159-168.
Simonnet, P. (1990). Sheep flock management in a tropical
environment under coconut. Ol=E9agineux, 45(10), 451-455.
Sukri, M.I. and Dahlan, I. (1986). Feedlot and semi-feedlot
systems for beef cattle fattening among smallholders. In: Proc.
8th Ann. Conf. MSAP (ed. Hutagalung, R.I. et al.) held at Genting
Highlands 13-14 March 1984. 74-78.
Wilson, J.R. and Ludlow, M.M. (1991). The environment and
potential growth of herbage under plantations. In: Forages for
Plantation Crops (ed. Shelton, H.M. and Stur, W.W.) ACIAR
Proceedings No. 32, 10-24.
Wong, C.C. (1991). Shade tolerance of tropical forages: a
review. In: Proceedings of workshop Forages for Plantation
Crops, Shelton, H.M. and Stur, W.W. (ed.). Sanur Beach, Bali,
Indonesia 27-29 June 1990. ACIAR Proceedings No. 32, 64-69.
More detailed information on the pasture-cattle-coconut system
can be found in the following, copies of which will be sent on
request (provided full name and address are forwarded):
Reynolds, S.G.(1995) Pasture-Cattle-Coconut Systems. FAO RAPA
Publication 1995/7, 668p.
Stur, W.W., Reynolds, S.G. and Macfarlane, D.C. (1994) Cattle
Production under Coconuts. In Copland, J.W., Djajanegra, A. and
Sabrani, M. (ed) Agroforestry and Animal Production for Human
Welfare. ACIAR Proceedings No. 55, 106-114.
Reynolds, S.G. (1993) Pastures and livestock under tree crops:
present situation and possible future developments. In Evans,
T.R., Macfarlane, D.C. and Mullen, B.F. (ed) Sustainable beef
production from smallholder and plantation farming systems in the
South Pacific: proceedings of a workshop. AIDAB, 77-117.
FAO ELECTRONIC CONFERENCE:
LIVESTOCK FEED RESOURCES WITHIN INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS
DISCLAIMER: Neither the conference organizers nor FAO accept
any legal responsibility for either the contents of this
message or any copyright laws that the person sending this
electronic message may have violated.
TO COMMENT: Unless you want to reply only to the person
sending this information, please send your comments to the