BioEnergy Users Network(BUN) Newsletter: Vol 1.1,August 1996


To All the Members,

This is regarding BUN-INDIA's NewsLetter that is made available at Web site As we got the information that some people are not able to access this site, we are sending the same below and welcome your comments and suggestions:


August 1996
Volume 1.1
Biomass Users Network India


Prof. H S Mukunda
Combustion, Gasification & Propulsion Lab.
Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560 012, India
Tel +90-80-3348536
Fax +90-80-3341683


  *     Foreword
  *     What is BUN-INDIA?
  *     Agro-residue potential of India
  *     Wood Biomass for energy in India
  *     Development of Biomass Gasifier Systems for Fine/low density biomass
  *     Biomass Gasifiers for drying of Chemicals
  *     Case study of family size biogas plants Dhanwas
  *     NARI Gasifiers for thermal Applications
  *     Efficient use of biomass in Karnataka
  *     Species choice and space geometry to enhance biomass production
  *     Biomass programme in India
  *     Editorial


We are pleased to place before you the inaugural issue of the newsletter of Biomass Users Network India). We would like to largely concern ourselves with the use of bioresidues for energy generation purposes. In the process, if value addition takes place, it is also considered a part of the activities of BUN. The basic idea of this newsletter is to provide a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of newer developments in Biomass utilisation. We hope to bring together technologists, manufacturers, users, and anybody interested in the efficient utilisation of biomass. While this issue has explanatory articles which are from those who have spent time in the development of the technologies and those who have used them in the service of the society, a section on letters from readers and responses to them from appropriate people will be provided from the second issue. We need to recognise that there are other newsletters and networks in the area of thermochemical conversion of biomass - Pyne Network, Wood fuel now!, Biomass Focus, Warmer Bulletin, The Solar Letter and the like. Yet, the activities in Biomass Utilisation currently active in India because of Governmental and Industrial support are perhaps most unique and need to be brought out for the benefit of the progress in our country and elsewhere. This Newsletter will be put out on WWW electronically at the address home.html and is being sent to about four hundred and fifty people all over the world. It is also being sent to all the active Newsletter offices. We hope that this will generate more discussion and lead to more and better utilisation of the natures most bountiful and least expensive renewable source of energy in a sustainable way.


Biomass Users Network (BUN) an international body working from the office of La Rocco Associates, New Jersey. The basic aims of BUN (India) are

* To share success stories from field experiences; learn lessons from failures and problems - all on the use of bio-residues- solid and liquid , agro and wastes, for energy at other ends *Produce a Newsletter once in 3 months. Formation of an Editorial board for the same.

* To organize a meeting at the end of the year and publish a report regarding the activities of the project.

* To create awareness about the presence of BUN, India. Develop Strategy towards such a cause.

Agro-residue potential of India

It is often argued in the corridors of power and elsewhere that energy based on woody biomass should be replaced by energy from agro- residues because, deforestation is becoming so rampant that woody biomass can no longer be taken as "available". It is therefore suggested that India examine the possibility of using agro-residues for power generation. Based on the data from TEDDY, the TERI Handbook, the following figures indicating the availability of agro-residues in the country are presented. It can be taken the total available residue is about 400 million tonnes, of which about 5 % constitutes the woody variety (density more than about 250 kg/m3) and the rest pulverisable. Even if we take that about 25 % is available for power generation, it amounts to 15000 MW of total installed capacity with individual capacities upto 5 MWe or so.

N. H. Ravindranath, ASTRA, Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560 012, India

There have been significant developments in bioenergy technologies in the last decade. Bioenergy technologies have been shown to be desirable and feasible for meeting rural energy requirements in developing countries on social, economic and environmental considerations. Studies (Ravindranath and Hall 1995) have shown that, it is possible to meet all the electricity requirements of all the 557, 000 villages in India through kilowatt scale systems. The crucial question here is the land availability for woody biomass production. India is a large populous developing country with a population of 900 million and a population density of 275/km2.

A detailed analysis of land availability for energy in India has shown that in India 66 to 130 Mha of degraded land is available for woody biomass production (Ravindranath and Hall 95). Out of this only 15 Mha is adequate to produce about 122 Mt. of wood required at a productivity of 8 t/ha/year to meet all the rural electricity requirements in India. This vast degraded or wastelands are subjected to over grazing, soil compaction, soil erosion and degradation. At the current annual rates of afforestation of about 1.5 Mha, it is going to take at least 50 years to revegetate the wastelands.

The assured demand for wood production and the commercial nature of sustainable wood production and bioelectricity generation system would provide the necessary financial incentive to reclaim a part of vast wastelands in India. Thus land is not a constraint in India for producing woody biomass for energy.

Ravindranath N. H. and Hall D. O. (1995). Biomass Energy and environment - A developing country perspective from India. Oxford University press, Oxford.


BIOMASS A.D.S. Chauhan, Sr. Advisor, Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Ankur, Near Old Sama Jakat Naka, Baroda 390 008

While the initial focus of the biomass gasification programme in the country was generally on use of firewood/wood waste/wood chips (i.e. woody biomass), increasing emphasis has subsequently been laid on use of various agricultural and agro-industrial residues like rice husk, bagasse, saw dust etc,. Many of these feedstocks are characterised by relatively small particle size (fines), low bulk density and/or high ash content. A major effort was launched at Ankur Scientific to develop a range of gasifier systems capable of accepting many of these feedstocks without substantial pre-processing or fuel preparation (in terms of pulverising, briquetting etc.,). The FBG series of gasifiers, commercialised as a result of this effort, have shown very satisfactory performance on both rice husk and saw dust. Initial trials on other similar feedstocks have given promising results. Field installations on commercial basis have been undertaken in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh with high customer satisfaction reported so far.

The gasifier systems use novel control strategies and mechanisms for feed movement, char removal and also for responding to variable load conditions. Another unique achievement has been almost total elimination of large amounts of tar that are typical of rice husk gasifiers. The experience so far indicates that the FBG series gasifiers could accept a very wide variety of fine/low density/high ash feedstocks and a prototype has been set up at Ankur Scientific for regular trials with new feedstocks that may be of interest to likely customers/users of gasifier systems.


Dr. B C Jain, Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,
Ankur, Near Old Sama Jakat Naka, Baroda 390 008

ACE manufacturing & Marketing at village: Gothda Taluka: Savli Dist.: Baroda - 391 770, is using a 20 kW, Ankur wood based gasifier for the dehydration of chemical grade aluminium hydroxide, to manufacture end product activated alumina. The system consists of a gasifier, contact chamber, recovery cyclones and a suction blower. The producer gas from the gasifier is burnt in a suitably designed burner to give maximum heat output of 5000 kcal/hr.

The hot flue comes in contact with free flowing alumina powder, in the contact chamber, whereas the dehydrated product after the removal of 30-32 % combined moisture is collected in the recovery cyclones.

With the process using gasifier, the drying costs has been reduced to 40% and 70% of the cost using similar system with other fuels, such as kerosene, diesel or LPG and an electric furnace, respectively. This drying system using biomass gasifier has run for more than 5000 hrs so far, without any serious operational or maintenance problems.

The experiments with drying of other solids with varying consistence and also adopting gasifier to attain temperatures of up to 2500 C, in a tray drier in the indirect mode, have been successful and are being implemented in the actual production.

S N Srinivas, Tata Energy Research Institute Darbari Seth
Block, Habitat Place, Lodi Road , New Delhi - 110 003, India

Dhanawas village is about 50 km Southwest of Delhi. The village situated in the Farrukhnagar block, is about 15 km from the district headquarters Gurgaon, in the State of Haryana. There are about 181 households with a total population of 1056. Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) has been working in the village since 1984 and a number of technology interventions including biogas, improved chulhas, solar lanterns, solar street lights, biomass gasifier, biomass briquettes, etc. have been attempted. Among all the interventions made in the village, biogas plant has emerged as a most successful and infact, a competing technology to LPG (growth of biogas plant was twice than that of LPG during the last decade).

The end uses of cooking and water heating together constitute to more than 80% of the total energy use in the village, most of which is met by the non-commercial fuels. None for the households depend only on one fuel to meet all their cooking energy requirements. The surveys showed that use of non-commercial fuels included, 40% dung cake; 40%crop residue and the rest fuel wood from various sources. The biogas generation potential in the village was estimated to be 237 cum of gas per day (including 25.1 cum per day biogas generated from poultry). The total gas requirement for cooking at 340 litres per person per day, would be about 340 cum per day. The villagers were not keen on community biogas plant for two reasons; (i) scattered houses - most houses are in Dhanis (fields) and (ii) villagers preferred to have systems with independent operation. A survey to assess the potential for family size biogas plants revealed that 40% of the households in the village have enough cattle for individual biogas plants. Thus TERI decided to take up the development (improvement over the existing biogas plants) and demonstration of biogas plants.

Initially a modified Janata model was introduced, and subsequently various improvements were carried out for enhancement in performance and reduction in the cost. After several design changes and construction of about 10 biogas plants in the village, the spherical type of biogas plant was developed. Now there are 20 biogas plants of which 19 are functional. One is not in use because of the conflict about land among the family members.

An evaluation of the biogas programme in twenty-seven villages in Farrukh Nagar block of Gurgaon district implemented by the State Agriculture Department was conducted by TERI which revealed that only 16% of the installations were functional. The major reasons identified for the failure were, incomplete commissioning of biogas plants, faulty construction leading to major repair requirements which were not attended to, minor problems such as broken pipelines/valves, lack of simple maintenance & servicing due to the absence of awareness and training to the users, and non-rectification of dysfunctional biogas plants, etc. Further, various administrative procedures involved with the implementing agency created problems in disseminating the programme in fact lead to a strong negative impact about the technology among the villagers.

However, in Dhanawas, the functionality rate of biogas plants has been high (nineteen out of twenty plants functional). A study was conducted to identify the factors for the success of biogas plants in the village and prioritize them as per the users. About ten factors were identified; the factors and their rankings have been discussed in the following paragraphs.

Time saving is the factor which scored highest and from the feedback it was found that, the time saved by the use of biogas for cooking, was spent in attending to other domestic chores or in relaxation. The second ranking of institutional issues reflected the confidence the people had with the implementing agency. This confidence may be due to their observation of the implementing agency on other activities or functionality of installed biogas plants. Smoke removal was perceived as one important benefit ranked third which besides resulting in improved health, reduced the cleaning of walls and whitewashing them. Since, the biogas meet some large parts of the cooking in the households, use of biomass fuels including dung cake has reduced, though, not eliminated completely. Thus, it has become possible to divert a large proportion of dung as fertilizer in the fields. This alternate use of dung as fertilizer ranked fourth among the factors. The fifth ranking factor was a group of other reasons where convenience of operation of biogas plants over types of stoves and less or no maintenance problem along with its relatively safer operation was acknowledged by the users.

Fuel saving that the researchers, policy makers, and implementing agencies have paid maximum attention, did not score well and ranked sixth according to the users. The biogas light generally used as a standby in case of power failure is another perceived benefit by the villagers and as ranked seventh. The subsidy involved, by the government (33%) and an additional subsidy by TERI (another 33%) was identified as eighth important factor, showing that it was not a limiting criterion. Less effort in cleaning the vessels and kitchen and the plant as a status symbol scored last in the ranking of factors.

The study shows that, they have perceived time saving as a major benefit by the users and confidence in the implementing agency has played a major role in the success of the programme in the village. Though fuel saving has been used for the publicity of biogas, it does not appear very high on the list of perceived benefits by the users. The ranking of these factors in different areas may be different and a simple exercise can be carried out to decide the factors of priority in different areas. Thus, if the family size biogas clearly plant if disseminated properly, could even be a substitute to modern fuels such as LPG in the rural areas.

M. S. Rama Prasad
Joint Executive Secretary, Karnataka State Council for Science
and Technology, Bangalore 560 012, India

Realising the importance of biomass resources in the energy scenario of the country, Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology (KSCST) has been actively involved in this vital area for the last 20 years. Over the years KSCST has sponsored a number of R&D projects in effective utilisation of biomass in Karnataka. KSCST is also very actively involved in the dissemination of various technologies in the state. The paper discusses in detail the various programmes and its possible impact on the energy scenario of the state and future course of action to be pursued by the Council.

As already mentioned, the main source of energy in rural areas of the state is firewood. Indiscriminate use of firewood has already caused irreparable damage to the environment in the form of deforestation, floods, soil erosion etc. In the absence of a viable alternative (particularly for cooking) it is almost impossible to prevent use of firewood in rural area. Therefore, it is imperative that efforts must be made to conserve as much of firewood as possible. In this direction KSCST alongwith ASTRA undertook a project of developing an improved high efficiency firewood burning stove a few years back. After sustained R&D work, the scientists from ASTRA successfully developed a high disseminated in large numbers in the state under the popular name ASTRA OLE. Under National programme on Improved Chullah (NPIC) the executive agency in the state i.e., Rural Development Department has so far constructed nearly 10 lakh oles in the performance evaluation of these stoves. KSCST is helping the department in training of masons and performance evaluation of these stoves. A survey conducted by an independent agency has shown that 60% of these stoves are being effectively used in the field. This has resulted in annual savings of near 1.5 million tonnes of firewood.

In addition to Astra ole, KSCST has also disseminated a portable metallic stove namely Swosthee. During the last 3 years nearly 3000 stoves have been distributed in the state.

In addition to villages, firewood is also used in towns and cities for both domestic and commercial use. A detailed survey conducted by Astra group in 1985 has indicated that nearly 1500 tonnes of firewood is consumed in Bangalore city alone. In addition to domestic use, firewood is used in large quantities in commercial establishments like hotels, hospitals, hostels etc., and in industries like brick and tile, printing and dyeing, jaggery making etc. Another important factor to be considered is that, this firewood is transported from far off places, amounting to an average distance of nearly 200 km through commercial mode of transportation. In order to reduce firewood consumption in town and cities, KSCST sponsored two projects namely design and development of Efficient brick and tile kiln and large size Astra ole. Both these projects have been successfully completed by Astra achieving a savings of nearly 40 to 50% of firewood. KSCST is now in the process of diffusing these technologies in the state. In the past two years, KSCST has constructed nearly 300 large size Astra Ole, which has resulted in substantial savings of firewood. Another major programme launched alongwith education department of the state is to introduce large size Astra Ole in all the kitchen centres (numbering 4000) under mid-day meal programme. It is estimated that, when this project is completed, the net savings in firewood will be 80,000 tonnes every year. Another important factor in all these programmes is environmental protection (less firewood consumption) and improvement in the health of rural women folk due to smokeless characteristic of stoves.

In addition to these stoves, a large number of driers have been disseminated for procuring of areca, cardamom, cashew etc. These driers can also reduce fuel wood consumption by 50% as compared to conventional driers in the field.

Although almost all the villages in Karnataka has been electrified under Rural Electrification Programme, still there are a number of remote villages and tribal hamlets not electrified. Even in electrified villages, the supply of electricity is far from satisfactory. Hence, most of the farmers depend upon diesel based water pumping systems to meet their irrigation requirements, thus, consuming huge amount of this non- renewable source of energy. To overcome this problem, KSCST sponsored a project for the development of wood gasifiers in 1982. The project team at Indian Institute of Science, successfully developed a 5 HP biomass gasifier system which can be used either for water pumping or for decentralised electrification of rural areas. During the last 10 years nearly 500 systems have been installed in the state.

A unique experiment under this programme is electrification of an unelectrified village viz, Hosahalli 100 km. away from Bangalore. This backward village in a dryland area has 50 households. Now all these houses have been electrified by installing a biomass gasifier generator system. In addition to this 10 street lights have also been provided. The system is being operated for 4 hours in the night by local boys, trained by KSCST/ASTRA. It has been possible to achieve nearly 80% diesel replacement and the biomass requirement is met by the energy forest on the outskirts of the village.

MNES has sponsored a project at Indian Institute of Science (initially supported by KSCST) for the development of Powdery Biomass Gasifiers capable of accepting any agro waste in powder form. The project team has successfully developed a 100 kW system which can be used for both thermal and electrical application. Attempts are now being made to install a few systems in the state to meet power requirements in remote rural area.

To conclude, KSCST is actively working in the area of effective biomass utilisation in Karnataka for the last 15 to 20 years, keeping in mind, the possible impact on environment. It has sponsored a number of R&D projects, which has resulted in a number of products/systems/processes capable of achieving substantial savings in firewood and also solving energy problems in rural area. It is also actively involved in disseminating various technologies in this area and already significant number of products/systems have been installed in the state.

Anil K. Rajvanshi and Rajeev M. Jorapur,
Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 44, Phaltan - 415 523, Maharastra, India

NARI has developed low density and leafy biomass gasifiers upto 800 kW capacity for thermal applications under a grant from Rockefeller Foundation. This multifuel gasifier produces producer gas which burns with an intense bluish-white flame with flame temperature about 10000 C. The system was tested in an actual user-industry (makers of speciality refractories) in India by retrofitting it to an existing LDO-fired furnace in the industry. Other possible thermal applications are in bakeries; brick kilns; metallurgical furnaces; for making jaggery (gud); for drying seeds and other agricultural produce; or for other industrial drying applications where sufficient biomass is available. The gasification system can therefore prove to be a boon for rural and agro-based industries.


Capacity : Two sizes of 400 and 800 kW are available. Higher capacity gasifiers can be custom designed.

Multi-fuel gasifier : Can handle different biomass fuels like sugarcane leaves/bagasse, sweet sorghum stalks/bagasse etc. Systems to operate on other fuels like coconut coir, wheat husk, different types of grasses and safflower residues etc. are being developed.

Value added by-product : About 24% of the fuel is converted to char, which is a value-added product. It can be briquetted to form excellent fuel for chulhas (wood stoves) or can be used as a soil conditioner.

Zero waste water system : No process water is required for the operation, and so no waste water is generated

Minimal maintenance and downtime : Hot gas cleaning, so on condensation and accumulation of toxic tars and other condensables occur in pipe-lines and equipments

Quick start-up and shut-down : Cold start within ten minutes and hot start-up within three minutes

Judicious mix of auto and manual controls : A PLC-based control system controls the entire gasifier operation. Only two operators per shift are required for fuel and ash handling operations.


(A) Fuel : Biomass fuels like sugarcane leaves, bagasse, bajra residues, wheat straw etc. with the following specifications have been gasified in the NARI gasifier

	Bulk density 	:	25-100 kg/m3
	Particle size 	:	1-10 cm long
	Ash content 	:	< 10%
	Moisture content:	<20% w/w  (wet basis)

(B)  NARI gasification system

	Thermal output 		:	100-800 kW  (thermal) or 360-3280 MJ/h
	Gas calorific value	:       3.36 -4.62 MJ/Nm3
	Flame temperature 	:	~ 10000 C


The fixed cost of the system varies from Rs. 1,500/kW to Rs. 2,000/kW depending on the capacity, the materials used, the degree of mechanisation of the fuel and ash handling systems and the extent of automation of the system. The operating costs are extremely site- specific and depend primarily on the landed cost of biomass at site and the capacity utilisation of the gasifier system. The cost of energy delivered therefore varies from Rs. 480/MWh to Rs. 720/MWh and compares very favourably with that from light diesel oil (LDO) fired units whose cost is 1000 Rs./MWhr.


The present worlds energy crisis and its related environmental issues has put the scientific community in confusion. Long term sustainable development particularly in developing world, requires a gradual shift towards renewable energy sources, viz. Wind, solar and biomass energy. Bio-energy is one such sustainable and self reliant option, more so for countries like India with large geographical area. The biomass production, a must for bio-energy, depends on the efficiency with which the solar energy is harnessed. Increasing the canopy area by altering the spacing geometry and proper choice of species in canopy and non-canopy areas can enhance biomass production.

The study conducted at the southern dry zone of Karnataka under various systems indicate that about 5-10 tonnes ha-1 of biomass can be generated through mango, sapota and some fodder trees. However, this can be further enhanced by 10-20 per cent without altering the spacing and only by altering its geometry, i.e. hexagonal planting instead of square planting. The non-canopy area, space between canopies, can also be utilized for biomass production. The Stylosanthus and horse gram can produce 3-5 tonnes ha-1 of biomass in the non- canopy area. These plants would also help in building up of soil fertility. Thus, there is a great potentiality for producing biomass (to the tune of 8-14 tonnes ha-1) through proper selection of species and spacing geometry.

Dr. N.P Singh, Director, MNES, Delhi, India

About 93 million hectares of non-forest land is classified into 14 different agro-climatic zones and about 60 million hectares of forest land has been estimated as degraded wasteland in India. With a view to develop package of practices for fast growing, short rotation, high coppicing fuelwood species on different wastelands, MNES has been supporting research and development and demonstration projects at 9 Biomass Research Centres (BRCs) in different agro-climatic zones.

A package of practices have been developed including standardization of nursery requirements, application of biofertilizers, pest and diseases management for 36 fast growing and short rotation fuelwood species for getting an average of a minimum of about 20-26 tonnes of the biomass per hectare per year. BRCs have been organising training programmes to various target groups viz. officers of State Govt. NGOs and local people in their respective zones on nursery development and other aspects of energy plantations. These centres are also providing quality seedlings and consultancy to tree growers.


Plantation of fast growing tree species on degraded lands have been supported by MNES under its demonstration programme till March 1992. A total area of about 17,000 hectares in various parts of country have been covered under energy plantation under this programme. The outcome of R&D in BRCs have been tested on large areas through many such demonstration projects under energy plantation programme.

In India, about 70 biomass briquette machines using die and punch, ram and die and screw technologies are in use. These machines have the capacity of 250 kg-1.5 ton/hr and using agricultural and agro-industrial residues. The briquettes produced are finding market in tea drying, hotels etc. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), a financing agency under MNES is providing soft loan to briquetting industry. There are about seven biomass briquetting machine manufacturers in India which are mainly manufacturing piston ram type press type. Some prototypes of screw press type of briquetting machines.


R&D projects were supported for development of a 3.7 KW gasifier mainly based on wood or woody biomass for water pumping for irrigation in 1986 at Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat and Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi under International Collaborative projects. Later, other groups at IIT Bombay; Indian Institute of Sciences (IISc.), Bangalore; Nimbkar Agriculture Research Institute (NARI), Phaltan; Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU), Madurai have also been supported for R&D projects.

Under the above mentioned R&D projects and ARCs, gasifiers of different ratings from 3.7 KW to 500 KW have been developed for various applications viz. Mechanical, thermal and electrical. A number of training programmes and business meets with potential industries have been organised, specifications have been developed and 300 samples of different biomass have been characterized for their suitability for gasification and briquetting.


Gasification technology has been commercialised with indigenous R&D efforts. There are about 8 manufacturers viz. M/s.Ankur, Vadodara; M/s.AEW, Tanuku; M/s.Cosmo, Raipur; M/s.Grain Processing, Calcutta; M/s.Netpro, Bangalore etc. The product range is from 3.7 KW to 500 KW for woody and non-woody biomass. Technology packages for various industries such as plywood, rice mills, soap making, bakeries and tea processing are being offered by the manufacturer.


MNES has been implementing a nation-wide demonstration programme for gasifiers and provides a partial capital cost of gasifier, 30 per cent in case of thermal, 60 per cent in case of mechanical and electrical applications with upper limit prescribed for different ratings. Capital subsidy ranging from 30 to 75 per cent is being provided for use of gasifier for cooking application in hostels, mess rooms of military, para-military forces and police. The programme is being implemented in a market oriented manner, manufacturers develop the proposals by selecting users and government subsidy is routed through state nodal departments/ agencies in a phased manner to ensure the quality and performance of the systems installed by the manufacturers. Under gasifier demonstration programme, village electrification is also supported by providing 75 per cent of cost of gasifier and gasifier engine set, balance 25 percent panchayat. Operation and maintenance cost is met by the Panchayat through collection of payments from the beneficiaries.

So far, about 1600 gasifiers with an aggregate installed capacity of about 18 MW equivalent have been installed in the various parts of the country for irrigation, industrial and village electrification. About 15 villages have been electrified under the programme. A state- wise list of gasifiers is given at Table I.


Several promotional incentives for renewable systems have been provided by the government in order to overcome the inherent bias and distortions in the energy sector policies which favoursfossil fuels. These incentives include tax concessions, customs and excise duty reliefs. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), a financing public sector unit under MNES, provides soft loan for manufacturing and utilization of renewable energy devices and systems including biomass briquetting and gasification.



	  Upto March 1993       1993-94	          1994-95	     1995-96
          ---------------   --------------   -----------------  --------------------               -------
STATE     No.of   Capacity  No.of  Capacity   No.of   Capacity   No.of   Capacity 
  	 systems   (kW)    systems   (kW)    systems   (kW)     systems    (kW)
        installed	  installed         installed          installed   
Pradesh    40	   194	     18      390       24      2400       17      1700 
Pradesh	    -	    -	      3      120       -         -	  -	   -
Assam       -       -         -       -         5        23       -        -
Bihar       2       20        -       -        -         -        -        -
Goa         3       30        -       -        -         -        -        -
Gujarat     -      164     1260       14     1030        12     1104       5    
Haryana    16      274        1      100        8       590       -        -
Pradesh	    2        8        -       -        -         -        -        -
Jammu &
Kashmir     4	   120	      -	      -	       -	 -	  -	   -
Karnataka 468     2329        -       -        -         -        -        -
Kerala      5      115        1      100        4       400       -        -
Pradesh   105      649       10      100       14      1740       10     1500
shtra     303     1613        1       40        3       110       1       500
Orissa     15       62        -       -         -        -        -        -
Punjab	   18	   430	      4	      90        3	150	  -	   -
Rajasthan  12	    63	      9	     165	-	 -	  -	   -
Tamil Nadu 55	   393	      -	      -	        -	 -	  1	  40
Pradesh	   34	   361	      -	      -	        1	150	  -	   -
West Bengal -	    -	      -	      -	        -	 -	  5	 550
Others	   91	   550	      -	      -	        -	 -	  -	  -
Total	 1337	  8471	     61	    2135       74      6717	 39	4402

The BUN-NEWSLETTER is pulblished by the BUN-INDIA

Combustion, Gasification & Propulsion Laboratory
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012,INDIA

For further details or for contribution of articles, please contact

Gayathri V
Tel : +90-80-3348536, +90-80-3092338
Fax: +90-80-3341683

Do You Know this?

According to world energy council report, with major policy initiatives,

* Renewables could meet 8-12 % of total world energy needs (~1345 Mtoe) by 2020

* Modern biomass can account to 45% of renewable contributions by 2020.

| Prof. H.S.Mukunda                                |
| Chairman, Department of Aerospace Engineering    |
| Combustion, Gasification & Propulsion Laboratory |
| Indian Institute of Science                      |
| Bangalore  560 012   INDIA                       |

* Telephone:  0091-80-3348536,  0091-80-3092338       *
* Fax      :  0091-80-3341863                         *
*                                                     *
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