A Web of S I Ns - the nature and organization of Special Interest Networks



Link to Biodiversity Unit Homepage

Link to MADHAV GADGIL's Homepage

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Link to CES Homepage

Link to ENVIS Homepage



This preprint should be cited as follows: 
    Green, D.G. (1994).  A Web of S I Ns - the nature and 
          organization of Special Interest Networks.

A Web of SINs - the nature and organization of Special Interest Networks

David G. Green


CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

A Special Interest Network (SIN) is a set of network sites ("nodes") that collaborate to provide a complete range of information activities on a particular topic. SINS are emerging as an important new paradigm for large scale collaboration on the Internet. Coordination is achieved through logical design, automation, mirroring, standards, and quality control. To be successful, SINs should strive to provide reliable, authorative information services, to encourage participation, and to accommodate growth.

INTRODUCTION

The introduction of new protocols, especially Gopher and World Wide Web, has led to an information explosion on computer networks around the globe. Driven by a rapid growth in the number of users the Internet is rapidly becoming the world's most important means of scientific information exchange. Perhaps the most significant effect of these developments is that they are beginning to change the very ways in which we carry out many activities, such as research and teaching. Here I propose a model - the "Special Interest Network" (SIN) - as a paradigm for large scale collaboration and communication on the Internet.

As the volume and variety of network information grows, several trends, needs and possibilities are increasingly evident. For instance, perhaps the greatest immediate impact of the World Wide Web is that it has makes network publishing a viable enterprise. The advantages include instant, world-wide availability, hypertext and multimedia content, and extreme flexibility in the material and format of publications. Besides traditional books and articles, for instance, we can now potentially publish data, software, images, animation and audio.

There is a growing trend in many areas of research towards large scale projects and studies that involve contributions from many sources (Green, 1993a). Also, there is no need for a "publication" to be stored all in one place. For instance, acting independently many Web sites have put together national or regional guides. Many of these documents, such as the Guide to Australia integrate information from many different sources. In turn these documents are now themselves being merged to form encyclopaedic information bases, such as the Virtual Tourist.

There are also great advantages in publishing raw data, as well as the conclusions of scientific studies. In many cases data that are gathered for one purpose can be recycled and, combined with other data, add value to related studies. Perhaps the most prominent example is the growth of molecular biology databases. International databases, such as Genbank (Bilofsky & Burks, 1988) and EMBL (Cameron, 1988), are public compilations consisting of contributions from thousands of scientists. Attempts are now underway to expand this practice into other areas, such as biodiversity (e.g. Burdet, 1992; Canhos et al., 1992; (Green, 1994; Greuter, 1991).

The trends described above have made several needs increasingly obvious. These include:

SPECIAL INTEREST NETWORKS (SINS)

A Special Interest Network (SIN) is a group of people and/or institutions who collaborate to provide information about a particular subject. The main functions of a SIN fall into the following four headings:

SINS consist of a series of participating "nodes" that each contribute to the network's functions. More specifically the nodes carry one or more of the following:

For research activity, SINs are the modern equivalent of learned societies. Some may even be the communications medium for societies (e.g. Burdet, 1992). We can also consider SINs as a logical extension of newsgroups and bulletin boards. Namely, they aim to provide a complete working environment for their members and users. SINs differ from SIGs ("special interest groups") in two important ways. First SIGs are usually part of larger organizations. The second, and greater, distinction lies in the use of networks. Whereas a group usually has a focus, SINs are explicitly decentralized.

A good example of a SIN is the European Molecular Biology Network. EMBNet is a special interest network that serves the European molecular biology and biotechnology research community. It consists of nodes operated by biologically oriented centers in different European countries. It features a number of services and activities, especially genomic databases such as EMBL (Cameron, 1988).

The following features characterize most large special interest networks. They also provide guidelines for setting one up.

  1. Need - The SIN serves a need that is not being met by other means, or provides a better (more comprehensive, accurate or reliable) set of data than is available from other sources.
  2. Coordination - a coordinating centre or syndicate organizes the network, receives and processes new entries, and communicates relevant news to its users.
  3. Support - There is a body of users who are willing and able to help to establish and manage the network's information activities (managing databases, editing publications, moderating newsgroups, mailing lists, etc.).
  4. Participation - Anyone may contribute items to the information base. Major SINs announce new entries via special newsgroups or mailing lists. Contributors carry out all editing of their entries, including formatting, correcting and updating them.
  5. Access - Anyone may access, copy or use the information at any time. Normally access is via a computing network using a standard protocol.
  6. Standards (see later) - Contributors must use standard fields and attributes in submissions (e.g. Croft, 1989). These standards must be well defined and should be publicized as widely as possible. For data they are often expressed as a submission form (electronic, printed, or both) that is filled in by contributors.
  7. Format - Textual data (including bibliographies, mailing lists, etc.) are normally submitted as ASCII files with embedded tags. The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) provides a flexible medium for "marking up" information for a variety of purposes. The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which is an SGML application, is used for formatting documents for distribution via the World Wide Web. However there are many advantages in marking up documents using structural tags, rather than HTML's predominantly formatting tags. This practice allows great flexibility in the way servers access information. For instance, equivalent sections (e.g. bibliographies) can be automatically extracted from many different files, combined, reformatted and delivered as a Web document. On any particular node databases can be stored using any database software, provided that a suitable network gateway can be provided. Utilities for SQL/HTML conversion are now widely available, for instance. Images should be in one of the common formats in use, such as GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) or JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group).
  8. Quality control (see later) - Users need some guarantee that data provided in a database are both valid and accurate (Green, 1991, 1992). Quality control checks can be applied by database contributors, coordinators, and users (see later).
  9. Attribution - Every item of information should include an indication of its contributor. This is essential to the notion that contributions are a form of publication.
  10. Agreements - There is an explicit list of terms and conditions. Typically, users agree to acknowledge the sources and to waive liability for any use they make of the data. Contributors agree to place their data in the public domain. The organizers agree to abide by the usual conditions for publications, such as referring corrections or changes to the contributors. Everyone agrees not to sell or charge for the data.
  11. Automation - as many operations as possible (e.g. logging and acknowledging submissions) should be automated (Fig. 1).

Coordination

An information system that is distributed over several sites (nodes) requires close coordination between the sites inolved. The coordinators need to agree on the following points:
  1. logical structure of the on-line information;
  2. separation of function between the sites involved;
  3. attribute standards for submissions (see below);
  4. protocols for submission of entries, corrections, etc.;
  5. quality control criteria and procedures (see below);
  6. protocol for on-line searching of the databases;
  7. protocols for "mirroring" the data sets.

For instance, an international biodiversity database project might consist of agreements on the above points by a set or participating sites ("nodes"). Contributors could submit their entries to any nodes and each node would either "mirror" the others or else provide on-line links to them.

The information cycle

The use of information often falls into the following four-stage cycle of activities: SINs can assist at each stage of this "research" cycle:
  1. In the first stage, communication enables people concerned with a particular topic to stay in constant touch with the relevant user community. The benefits include the ability to relay questions and initiate discussion of issues essentially in real time; to enable those who need to ask questions to contact people able to answer those questions; to provide a forum for current issues to be discussed in a timely fashion; and to minimize unnecessary duplication of effort.
  2. In the information gathering stage, not only can uses more effectively reach sources of relevant information, but they can also help each other by indexing any new resources that they may discover in the process or by adding fresh data items to existing repositories.
  3. In the interpretation stage, users may be able to access useful software, search bibliographies, or seek advice from colleagues.
  4. In the dissemination phase, users will be able to publish their results to a very wide audience very quickly. In scientific research these practices are already widespread in many fields (e.g. physics) and several network-based journals already exist on Internet (e.g. Complexity International).

THE TECHNOLOGICAL SETTING

Most parts of the world are now linked by the Internet (Krol, 1992), which is a computing "network of networks" that links together literally millions of computers around the world.

A few of the services currently available include: Gopher, WAIS, World Wide Web, FTP, Usenet News, Telnet, Hytelnet (a bibliographic protocol for libraries, a library SIN), X.500 and network resource location services, such as Archie, Veronica and Jughead, for searching the network. For details of available services, see for example, The Biologist's Guide to the Internet.

FTP

Until recently "File Transfer Protocol" (FTP) was perhaps the most popular method of providing information over the Internet. Under "anonymous FTP" users log in to a host site across the network (using the name "anonymous" and giving their email address as a "password"). They are then free to retrieve any files from the host's public directories of information.

Telnet

Many sites provide services to "guest" users via the telnet protocol. Under telnet, users log in to a host site using a publicized guest account. This account allows them to use services that the host makes available to the public, such as querying a database or running certain programs (e.g. public gopher or web clients).

Listserve

Listervers provide public mailing lists. Subscribers join a list by mailing a subscription "subscribe list_name user_name" (with the appropriate names inserted, e.g. subscribe biodiv-l Fred Nurk) to the server listserv@host_name (e.g. listserv@ftpt.br). The listserver program adds their name to the mailing list. Subscribers can communicate with everyone on the list by sending messages to the address list_name@host_name (e.g. biodiv- l@ftpt.br), which is then broadcast to all members of the list.

WAIS

WAIS ("Wide Area Information Servers") is a client-server protocol to search for and retrieve files, based on full-text indexing of their contents or titles. A common application is a "waisindex", which is often available via gopher or web servers.

Gopher

Gopher is a client-server protocol for retrieving multimedia information automatically via a system of menus. Developed at the University of Minnesota, Gopher revolutionized environmental information by enabling computer-non-literates to access network information such as FTP and WAIS (including images and sounds) without having to know about the usual process. It now has literally millions of users world-wide.

The key factors in the success of Gopher are its simplicity - just point and click on a menu - and the availability of "client" software for all of the most commonly used computing platforms. Previously, using the Internet had required a fair measure of computer literacy. Gopher made it possible for many people to explore "The Net" for the first time.

Furthermore, gopher server sites are very easy to set up and maintain; basically ascii files are formatted and placed in a gopher file system. However more sophisticated implementations involving such things as gateways to SQL databases are also possible.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW) originated at CERN in Switzerland. Like Gopher, it operates on a client-server basis. The underlying protocol is the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Like Gopher, WWW supports multimedia transactions. But rather than menus, "The Web" deals primarily with hypertext documents. These documents are formatted using the "Hypertext Markup Language" (HTML) which allows limited text layout and formatting, and the inclusion of hypertext links. These links are presented in the form of selectable highlighted terms or images embedded directly within the text that lead to other documents, images, etc., which may themselves contain embedded hyptertext links. Selecting one of these links tells the software to retrieve the selected item for display, from wherever in the world it is stored. The items may be documents, images, audio, or even animation.

WWW's hypertext formatting language (HTML) is an application of SGML (see earlier). The freeware program RTFtoHTML converts Rich Text Format (an output option on many wordprocessors) to HTML and macros for converting text to HTML are available for MS Word. The HTML browser tkWWW (freeware for Unix/X11) includes a WYSIWYG editor for HTML.

During 1993 World Wide Web (WWW) began to have a profound effect on the academic community. Like Gopher, participation on the "Web" is growing exponentially (doubling time is at present 3 months). The stimulus of the explosion was NCSA's release of a new program (Mosaic) that realized the full potential of WWW's hypermedia capability. NCSA Mosaic is now available under X-Windows, Macintosh and DOS-Windows systems. Important features of Web browsers (first introduced by NCSA's program Mosaic) include:

IMPLEMENTATION

Organization

Although SINS could (and no doubt will) be organized in many different ways. Using the example of running a public database, the scheme outlined below recommends mechanisms that are designed to distribute the workload, encourage participation and to accommodate growth:

Many of the above steps will be automated. "Mirroring" is the process of duplicate of a set of information that originates from another site. Whereas it is generally better to provide a pointer to the site that maintains an item of information, it is desirable to mirror any information (e.g. a "home" page for the SIN) that is frequently used, especially to reduce international traffic. Mirroring is also desirable in case of disk crashes or breaks in entwork connections.

Standards

Coordinating and exchanging scientific information are possible only if different data sets are compatible with one another. To be reusable, data must conform to standards. The need for widely recognized data standards and data formats is therefore growing rapidly. Given the increasing importance of network communications (Green, 1993a, 1993bb) new standards should be compatible with network protocols. To be reusable, data must conform to standards. Standards play a crucial role in coordinating activity. We need to develop two main kinds.

  1. Attribute standards define what information to collect. Some information (e.g. who, when, where and how) is essential for every data set; other information (e.g. soil pH) may be desirable but not essential.
  2. Quality control standards provide indicators of validity, accuracy, reliability or methodology for data fields and entries (see below). Examples include indicators of precision for (say) spatial location, references to glossaries or authorities used for names, and codes to indicate the kinds of error checks that have been performed on the entry.
  3. Interchange standards specify how information should be laid out for distribution.

Quality control

Users need assurance that data is correct, that software works, and that articles contain valid information. Because anyone can open a network site and release anything they like, quality is not assured. Users therefore tend to refer to sites that act as an authoritative source or some other guarantee of quality. For this reason users usually prefer sites that are well-managed, well-organized, or belong to respected institutions.

To ensure validity, molecular biology databases use the simple, but effective criterion of publication in a refereed journal. Many other approaches can be used. For example one might insist that a description of methodology accompany each data set that has not been published (say) in the scientific literature. Alternatively, a site might accept all contributions and categorize them on the basis of the evident quality of information.

Whatever criteria are used it is desirable to include indicators of reliability for the information in the attribute standard. Ideally every item of information should include a tag denoting accuracy or validity. Quality control fields need to include information about what error checks have been applied to ensure that the values have been recorded and entered correctly.

The compiling agent can apply consistency and outlier checks to filter out errors that may have been missed earlier (Green 1991, 1992). If the data incorporate sufficient redundancy, then consistency checks can reveal many errors. Does the named species exist? For instance, does the location given for a field site lie on land? and within the country indicated? If the database maintains suitable background information, then outlier tests can reveal suspect records that need to be rechecked. For instance if a record indicates that a plant grows at a site that has significantly lower rainfall than any other for that species, then the record needs to be checked in case of error. Both sorts of checks can be automated and are now routine for census data. They have recently been applied to herbarium records and other environmental data (e.g. Chapman, 1992).

The general publication procedure (Fig. 1) includes a quality control step. When a contribution is received the editor applies tests to ensure that the information conforms to the standard and to check for any obvious errors. For text material this quality control process might simply be a careful reading of the ms. If any faults are detected, the information is returned to the source for correction. After this initial checking, new items are placed in an updates area (Fig. 1) and users are invited to submit comments about them. After suitable checks, and corrections by the contributor, the new entry is transferred to the database proper.

Distributed databases

An important activity of a SIN is for many sites to contribute to build a joint database that is searchable across the network. A network database can have four different levels of distribution:

Network library

An important function of a special interest network is to provide a virtual library. That is, it should provide organized links to relevant information, wherever this information resides on the Internet. The biggest and best known virtual library is the World Wide Web Virtual Library, which is operated by CERN

The logical design of the system could be based around major projects & themes and the library can be compiled and maintained in several ways:

The above information could be made available via a series of menus and pages available on the Internet via Gopher, World Wide Web and other suitable protocols. Copies of the main pages and hierarchy of documents could be available at each node in the network.

This will require a regular "mirroring" process to ensure that all nodes are kept up to date. It is very important to ensure that all information items in this library are visible at all nodes and not just visible as an isolated reference at a particular site.

Network publishing

Network publications can range from familiar paper items - books, journals, news magazines - that are simply transferred to electronic form to novel productions, such as image databases or thematic compilations of pointers to items stored at many different sites.

An important principle in network publication is that the site that maintains an item of information publishes the information. This rule applies esecially to items that are updated regularly. Secondary sources (other sites that want to provide their users with access to the item concerned) should adopt one of two options: either provide a link to the primary site, or else mirror the original by downloading copies at regular intervals. These practices ensure that users always have access to the most up-to-date information available.

One approach to publishing that a SIN can adopt is simply to register relevant existing activities. This benefits both the SIN as a whole and the publishing site:

Automation

Automation is a key element in making a SIN viable. The aim is to reduce the workload and human involvement in creating and maintaining information, and hence costs, for participating nodes. For example, publishing submitted material (whether text, data, images etc) involves several steps (Fig. 1). As many as possible of these steps should be automated. For instance, storing, registering and acknowledging incoming material are routine procedures that are time-consuming if done "by hand".

Once the necessary scripts and programs have been developed, they could be provided with other standard files as astartup package to new nodes. In many cases the scripts and programs needed to automate particular procedures already exist and are freely available on the Internet.

DISCUSSION

The notion of SINS as described here derives from three sources. First, as manager of a network information server I was prompted to develop the idea after observing the ways in which various sites had begun to coordinate their activities on particular topics. It seemed to me that SINS have the potential to fill both the role of learned societies as authoritative bodies, and of libraries as stable repositories of knowledge and information.

Second, the evident success of molecular biology databases and physics preprint services suggests that the underlying principles can be extended both to other fields and to other areas of activity. Across the entire range of science, for instance, observations and experiments yield a wealth of raw data which, if suitably organized, can add value to future studies.

Finally there is the problem of how to organize an exploding pool of information on the network. Librarians have struggled with this problem for centuries. Whilst their solutions are useful, the information explosion on the network poses problems never encountered before: the sheer volume of information, rapid turnover and change (especially the need to maintain information), and the flexibility of hypertext and multimedia. The SINS approach provides a user-driven solution, in which groups of people interested in a particular topic organize and index information in ways that they find most useful.

Various projects are putting into practice the SINS concept, as outlined here. For example, FireNet, for example, is a SIN concerned with all aspects of landscape fires (Green et al., 1994) and the Biodiversity Information Network (BIN21) has now organized its network activity as a SIN (Green and Croft, 1994). These and other similar activities have provided many useful lessons about putting the SINS idea in practice. I have tried to incorporate some of this practical experience into the above account. The interest shown in such groups encourages my belief that the SINS approach is a very fruitful way to organize activity via the Internet.

To put current developments into perspective, we can consider the changes that have taken place in the way that scientific results are disseminated. We might term the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century was the era of correspondence between great scholars. The Nineteenth Century can be classed as the era of the great societies and the Twentieth as the era of the great journals. The Twenty-First Century will surely become the era of the knowledge web and I expect that SINS, whatever form they may take, will play a major role in its organization.

REFERENCES


Link to Biodiversity Unit Homepage

Link to MADHAV GADGIL's Homepage

Link to JNCASR Homepage

Link to CES Homepage

Link to ENVIS Homepage