The United States military is America's largest polluter. A conference entitled The Military Impact on our Communities: in Post-Cold War Era, was held on 22 May 1993 in New York City. It was coordinated with a nationwide campaign, and examined the dangers of military toxins and military costs and actions that can be taken on issues surrounding the military impact on the environment. Speakers discussed health effects, base closure, nuclear weapons plants, the UN Earth Summit grassroots efforts and the dangers of militarism in a rapidly changing world threatened by environmental crisis. The event was co-sponsored by: National Toxics Campaign Fund, Physicians for Social Responsibility-NY, International Clearinghouse on the Military & the Environment, Greenwich Village Coalition, and Metro SANE/Freeze Council.
The Government of China announced on 5 October 1993 that it had successfully completed an underground nuclear weapons test despite an informal nuclear test moratorium. Its first underground nuclear test in a year sparked international protests. The Nobel-prize winning physicians of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), who were gathered in Mexico at a congress entitled "Peace, Justice & Health in a Changing World", condemned China's action and called on other nuclear powers to exercise restraint.