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Session14: Sustainable water resources management 
and water resources policy/Coastal Ecosystems 

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Chairman: Dr. Devashish Kar

Rapporteur: Sreekantha

Heavy Metal Pollution in Chilika Lake, A Tropical Lagoon

Panda D.S.,  Behera R.K., Sahu R.K. &  Bandhopadhya S.N.  


An enormous increase in pollution due to discharge of effluents from industrial Units to rivers and lakes is a matter of great concern in developing countries.  Developed and developing countries are suffering from different form of water pollution.  Developed countries, which have water pollution problem due to industrial proliferation and modernised agricultural technologies, are now on the way of combating the problems through improving wastewater treatment technique.  But developing countries with lack of technical know how, weak implementation of environmental policies and with limited financial resources are still facing problems.  In India different lakes receive a heavy influx of sewage, industrial effluents, domestic and agricultural waste which consists of varying hazardous chemical and causing deleterious effects on fish and other aquatic organism (Helz 1976).  In addition fishing and recreational activities in lake also pollute its water.  Coastal Lagoons receives a variety of pollutants from land drainage.  Information on the distribution of heavy metals in coastal lagoon water is essential to assess the accumulation levels in the organism and their possible transfer to food chain, which governs the fishery potential.  The primary sources of heavy metals pollution in coastal lagoons are input from rivers, sediments and atmosphere. In the present paper, the heavy metal concentration along with the other physico-chemical parameters was measured in the Chilika lagoon and the results are discussed.

 Distribution of Faecal Coliforms in Two Selected Estuarine Wetlands of Dakshina Kannada along Karnataka CoastShashikumar, K. C., Rekha, P. D. and Madhyastha M. N. *
Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalore University, 574 199, Karnataka. India
* Chemical Engineering Dept., National Institute of Technology, Karnataka, Surathkal, 574 157. India

Estuaries are one among the coastal wetlands, which are most diverse, highly productive systems and with dynamic biological components. Faecal indicator bacteria, being one among the biological communities in these coastal wetlands are quite often being used as a water criteria index and estuarine hygiene status. Their quantification is used to define the water quality and extent of faecal contamination in many wetland systems.

The MPN index of indicator faecal organisms including Escherchia coli and Faecal streptococci have been analysed in two estuarine wetlands of Dakshina Kannada along Karnataka coast for a period of two years. Moderate to low MPN index values of total faecal coliforms, E. coli and F. streptococci were recorded with latter being the lowest. Clear demarcation from estuarine mouth to head was observed indicating faecal coliforms are not better survivors in high saline waters. Premonsoon increase in the coliform load indicated the direct influence of anthropogenic discharges into these systems. The faecal index, a qualitative pollution index was calculated and like other coastal wetlands systems, its applicability in these estuaries is uncertain. Distribution of coliforms was not much influenced by the environmental parameters studied, however, BOD and nitrate levels have shown some significant influences.

Holistic approach is needed to preserve the sanitation of these systems and the biological integrity in its pristine conditions and may helpful in fishery economy.  Present paper also deals with some recommendations for the better management of coastal wetlands.

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